Understanding Zika Virus

Zica virus infection occurs through the intermediary of Aedes mosquito bites, especially Aedes aegypti species. The disease caused is called Zika, Zika disease (Zika disease) or Zika fever (Zika fever).Zika virus that has infected humans can cause some symptoms, such as fever, joint pain, conjunctivitis (red eye), and rash. The symptoms of Zika's disease can resemble symptoms of dengue and chikungunya disease, and can last several days to a week.The first Zika virus was found in a monkey resus in the Zika forest of Uganda in 1947. The Zika virus was later rediscovered in the Aedes Africanus species of mosquitoes in the same forest in 1948 and in humans in Nigeria in 1954. The Zika virus became endemic and began to spread beyond Africa and Asia in 2007 in the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus re-emerged in Brazil. The spread of this virus continues to occur in January 2016 in North America, South America, Caribbean, Africa, and Samoa (Oceania). In Indonesia itself, Zika virus has been found in Jambi in 2015.Causes of Zika VirusThe cause of Zika disease (Zika disease) or fever Zika (Zika fever) is a virus Zika. Zika virus is included in the line of flavivirus virus that still comes from the same family with the virus that causes dengue disease / dengue fever.The Zika virus is spread to humans by infected Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes become infected after bite sufferers who already have the virus. These mosquitoes are very active during the day and live and breed indoors and outdoors close to humans, especially in areas where there are puddles.Although rare, the Zika virus can be transmitted from a mother to her baby. Zika virus is likely to be transmitted from a pregnant woman to the fetus in her womb. It can also be infected during childbirth. Until now, the case of Zika virus transmission through the breastfeeding process has not been found so that medical experts still recommend an infected mother to continue breastfeeding her baby.In addition, there are several reports of Zika virus that transmission occurs through blood transfusions and sexual intercourse.Symptoms of Zika VirusIn addition to the common symptoms already mentioned, other symptoms of Zika virus found are headache, back pain in the eye, and fatigue. These symptoms are generally mild and last up to about a week.Regarding the Zika virus incubation period is still unknown, but it may last up to 2-7 days since the patient is exposed to the virus (exposed to mosquito bites). Of the five people infected with the Zika virus, one person becomes ill from this virus. Although rare, there may be severe cases that require further treatment at the hospital, even death.Zika virus transmission that occurs in the womb is associated with the occurrence of microcephaly and brain damage to the fetus. Microcephaly is a condition in which the head circumference is smaller than normal size.Diagnosis of Zika VirusSeeing from the symptoms that resemble many other diseases, examination of the route ever made by the patient, especially to areas that have cases of Zika virus infection can help narrow the diagnosis. Your doctor may ask you about the area, time, and activities during your visit to the area.Doctors can perform blood tests to detect viral nucleic acids, isolate viruses, or serological tests. In addition to blood taking usually done within 1-3 days after symptoms appear, urine and saliva can also be tested on the third day until the fifth day.Zika Virus TreatmentZika virus treatment focused on efforts to reduce the symptoms felt by the patient because the vaccine and medicine cure this disease has not been found. Treatment of symptoms experienced can be a fluid to prevent dehydration, painkillers to relieve fever and headache, and adequate rest. Use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is not recommended before the likelihood of dengue-affected patients be eliminated.For patients who have been infected with the virus Zika is expected to avoid mosquito bites during the virus because of the Zika virus that can last long in the blood of patients can spread to others through mosquito bites.Prevention of Zika VirusPreventing mosquito bites is one of the early preventive measures that can help you avoid the virus infection Zika. Some preventive measures that can be done while in the area infected by the virus Zika, among others:
  • Make sure the place you live in has air conditioning or at least has door and window curtains that can prevent mosquitoes from entering the room.
  • Use bedside netting if the area you are visiting does not have the above.
  • Use long-sleeved shirts and trousers
  • Use insect repellents listed in the environmental protection agency (EPA), in accordance with the instructions stated on the packaging. The attached instructions will provide information on re-application, the applicable application area, the time and duration of the application.
  • Infants under the age of two months are not allowed to use these insect repellent materials so you should make sure that baby clothes can protect them from mosquito bites.
  • Also use mosquito nets on baby cots, baby strollers, and sling or other baby carriers.
  • Pay attention to the body area of ​​older children when applying insect repellent. Avoid areas of the body that are injured or are experiencing irritation, eye area, mouth, and hands.
  • Choose care, washing, or wearing of clothing and equipment using materials with permethrin content.Learn about product information and usage instructions regarding the protection provided. Avoid using this product on the skin.
  • Learn also information about the areas you will visit, such as health facilities and outdoor open space before departure time, especially areas infected with the Zika virus.
  • Perform a Zika virus test upon your return, especially pregnant women, from the Zika virus dispersal area.

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