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Symptoms And Causes Of Diabetes Insipidus

Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus
The main symptoms of diabetes insipidus are always feeling thirsty and frequent urination in large quantities. You will always be haunted by thirst despite drinking a lot of water.
The amount of urine expressed by people with diabetes insipidus each day is about 3-20 liters, ranging from cases of mild diabetes insipidus to the most severe cases. Urinary sufferers experienced this condition can be as much as 3-4 times per hour.
Symptoms that appear above can interfere with your daily activities as well as your sleep patterns. As a result will appear tired, irritable, and difficult to concentrate in performing daily activities.
Diabetes insipidus in children may be more difficult to recognize, let alone the child has not been able to communicate well. Symptoms in children suffering with diabetes insipidus are:
  • Bedwetting at bedtime.
  • Easily disturbed or angry.
  • Crying excessively.
  • High body temperature or hyperthermia.
  • Weight loss for no apparent reason.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Feeling tired and exhausted.
  • Slower growth.
Be sure to see a doctor immediately if you have two major symptoms of diabetes insipidus, always feel thirsty and frequent urination in large quantities.
Causes of Diabetes Insipidus
The hypothalamus, the tissue in the brain that controls mood and appetite, is the organ that produces antidiuretic hormones. This hormone will be stored in the pituitary gland until needed. The pituitary gland itself is under the brain, and is behind the bridge of the nose. This gland will release antidiuretic hormone when the body's water content decreases to stop the production of urine in the kidney.
Diabetes insipidus occurs when the antidiuretic hormone is impaired in regulating the body's water content. As a result, the body produces a lot of urine and dispose of water in very large quantities.
The following is a further explanation of both types of diabetes insipidus.
Cranial Diabetic Insipidus
This is a condition when the body does not produce enough antidiuretic hormones and results in the amount of water wasted in the urine. Below are some of the most common causes of this type of diabetes insipidus, namely:
  • About 16 percent of cases of cranial diabetes insipidus are caused by severe head injuries that damage the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
  • About 20 percent of cases of cranial diabetes insipidus are caused due to complications from brain surgery that damage the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
  • About 25 percent of cases of cranial diabetes insipidus are caused by brain tumors that damage the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
Here are some of the less common causes of diabetes insipidus.
  • Brain cancer.
  • Lack of oxygen in the brain for example due to stroke.
  • The occurrence of infections that damage the brain, such as encephalitis and meningitis.
  • Wolfarm syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that can cause loss of vision.
About 1 in 3 cases of cranial diabetes insipidus are not known.
Diabetes Insipidus Nefrogenik
This is the condition when the antidiuretic hormone is produced according to the level required by the body. But the kidney organ is not sensitive or does not respond to this hormone.
The antidiuretic hormone normally sends signals to the tissue of the nephron in the kidney. Nephrons are small structures that control how much water is absorbed by the body and how much water is released in the form of urine. For people suffering from diabetes insipidus nefrogenik, the process of sending this signal is disrupted. As a result, people who experience it will always feel thirsty because urine is wasted in large quantities. Diabetes insipidus nefrogenik itself is divided into two types:
  • Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or otherwise known as congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Congenital diabetic nephrogenic patients are born with this condition. There are two types of mutations or genetic changes that cause congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, namely AVPR2 and AQP2. AVPR2 genetic mutations can only be transmitted from mother to son. This type of mutation occurs in 9 of 10 patients. While genetic mutations of AQP2 occur in 1 in 10 cases of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and may affect both men and women.
  • Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. This type of diabetes insipidus is not born with this condition. The most common cause of acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is lithium side effects. Lithium itself is a drug used to treat bipolar disorder. If taken in the long run, the kidney organ cells can be damaged and then no longer able to respond to antidiuretic hormones. Nearly 50 percent of people will develop niprogenic diabetes insipidus if taking this drug in the long run. Be sure to perform kidney organ examinations once every three months as long as you consume lithium. 
Other causes of this condition other than lithium are:
  • Pielonephritis or kidney infection. Kidney organs are damaged by infection.
  • Urinary tract obstruction. The inhibition of one or both urinary tracts that connect the kidney to the bladder, such as kidney stones.
  • Hyperkalemia. Excess amount of calcium in the blood can damage the kidneys.
  • Hypokalemia. The amount of potassium in the blood is small, when all the cells in the body need potassium to function properly.

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