Sinusitis is inflammation or inflammation of the sinus wall. Sinus is a small cavity filled with air that lies behind the cheekbones and forehead. Sinusitis is a common disease that can infect people of all ages. Some types of sinusitis based on the length of the course of the disease, among others:
  • Acute sinusitis.
  • Subacute Sinusitis.
  • Chronic Sinusitis.
  • Recurrent Sinusitis.
In general, symptoms of sinusitis are:
  • Headache
  • Fever with a temperature of 38 ° Celsius or more
  • Nasal congestion or out of greenish yellow liquid
  • Pain on the face and pain when pressed
  • Loss of sense of smell
  • Breath smell (halitosis)
The location of sinuses in the human body
Sinuses are small spaces that are interconnected through the airways within the skull bones. The sinus cavity opens a hole in the nose. There are four pairs of sinuses inside the skull of the human head that is behind the forehead, on both sides of the bridge of the nose, behind the eyes, and behind the cheekbone.The mucus or mucus produced by the sinus helps to control the temperature and humidity of air entering the lungs. This mucus flows into the nose through small channels. This can be blocked if the sinus is infected or inflamed.
Main Causes and Factors Trigger Sinusitis Occurrence
The most common cause of sinusitis in adults is due to swelling of the inner walls of the nose. This condition is often caused by a flu virus or a nasal sinus spread from the upper respiratory tract. Factors triggering sinusitis in adults other than viral infections are fungal infections, dental infections, and smoking habits. Usually after a cold or flu, a secondary bacterial infection can occur. This will cause the walls of the sinus to become inflamed or inflamed.In children, sinusitis is caused by allergies, contracting diseases from other children around them, the habit of using a pacifier or drinking from a bottle lying down, and living in a smoke-filled environment.
Steps to Diagnose Sinusitis
Diagnosis of sinusitis can be done by the doctor by looking at symptoms that occur, such as nasal congestion or runny with pain in the face. The doctor will also perform a physical examination on the patient's nose. If the sinusitis is severe or reappear, you are advised to see an ENT specialist (ear, nose, throat). This specialist doctor will try to find the main cause of sinusitis that occurred. CT scans can also be used to find out the cause of sinusitis.
Drugs To Overcome Sinusitis
Most people with sinusitis do not need to see a doctor, because cases caused by the virus will disappear by itself. Sinusitis takes about two to three weeks to heal completely. This condition is longer than cold. If you have mild sinusitis, painkillers and decongestants will help reduce the symptoms.Check with your doctor if symptoms do not improve after a week of starting treatment, the condition worsening or constantly returning. In such cases, antibiotics and spray steroids or drops may be prescribed by a doctor.In the case of severe sinusitis, there may be a need for surgery to improve the function of the sinus and also its drainage function. Surgery is recommended only if other sinusitis treatment fails to deliver results.Diseases That Can Appear Due To Sinusitis ComplicationsAcute sinusis sufferers who are not treated properly will experience complications, namely chronic sinusitis.
When chronic sinusitis is also not handled properly, it will also occur complications include:
  • If the infection spreads to the brain wall, it can cause meningitis.
  • Damage to the sense of smell in whole or in part.
  • Problems in vision. Vision is reduced or even blind.
  • Trigger the appearance of skin or bone infection.
Symptoms of sinusitis can be divided into four groups according to the duration of:
Acute sinusitis. Have symptoms that arise suddenly and last up to 14 days, even a month. Some of the symptoms are the appearance of mucus or yellow or green mucus from the nose, headache, facial pain especially around the eyes, cheeks, nose, and forehead that feels more powerful when bending, disruption of the sense of smell, cough, runny nose, fever, , fatigue, and toothache. Sinusitis usually appears after an upper respiratory tract infection, eg due to colds and flu.
Subacute Sinusitis. Sinus inflammation that lasts for 1 to 3 months.
Chronic Sinusitis. Some of the symptoms are a runny nose or it just feels blocked, pus in the nasal cavity and nasal fluid changes color, fever, face feels full, and fever. The condition of sinusitis is said to be bad if pain, redness, and swelling around the eyes and forehead, severe headache, high fever, double vision, stiff neck, and confusion. Symptoms of sinus inflammation that appear last up to 3 months or more.
Recurrent Sinusitis. Usually will recur several times in one year.
Sinusitis In Children
Children with sinusitis will feel easily irritable, not appetite, and breathe through the mouth. Their voices will sound nasal. They seem to have a severe cold because the sinuses are closed. If symptoms appear like that, take your child to see a doctor.There are many things that can cause sinus inflammation and blockage. The most common cause of acute sinusitis is the flu, which is the result of a viral infection. However, in some cases, acute sinusitis can also be caused by a bacterial infection.While the cause of chronic sinusitis is not known clearly, but there are some things that are suspected to be associated as a trigger chronic sinusitis, namely:
  • Nasal polyp. This growing tissue can block the nasal passages.
  • Keep smoking.
  • Other medical conditions. Complications of medical conditions that make the immune system decline, the example of HIV / AIDS.
  • Allergies such as hay fever, asthma, and allergic rhinitis, can lead to blocked sinus tract.
  • Deviation of the nasal septum. The nasal septum is the wall between the nostrils. The septum may block the sinus tract.
Increased Risk of Sinusitis
There are several factors that make your sinuses more susceptible to infection.
Allergies: rhinitis (inflammation of the lining of the nose), asthma and hayfever (pollen allergy).
Weakening of the immune system.
Narrowing of the nasal passages: This can be due to structural abnormalities of the nasal bone since birth or septic deviation of the nose or due to external trauma resulting in facial injuries. The presence of tumors or polyps, ie, tissues that grow to form a mass in the nose will also cause narrowing of the nasal passages. If mucus or snot collects in a narrowed area, this can lead to sinus infections.
Smoking habit.
Cystic fibrosis or cystic fibrosis: a genetic disorder in which thick and sticky mucus accumulates and clogs channels in the body, increasing the risk of infection.
Most cases of acute sinusitis caused by viral infection can heal by itself. To relieve the symptoms, the patient just need to do some handling steps are:
  • Saline nose spray. Patients are advised to spray saline nose spray several times a day to their nose to clear the nasal passages. This nasal spray is a mixture of 400 milliliters boiled water, one teaspoon salt, and a teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda.
  • Pain relief.
  • Decongestants. Consult your doctor before taking decongestants. This drug can not be used for more than a week.
  • Nasal corticosteroids, serves to prevent and deal with inflammation.
If acute sinusitis is caused by allergies, then the patient usually also requires immunotherapy to help reduce the body's reaction to substances that make allergy sufferers.While the treatment of chronic sinusitis is usually aimed at reducing sinus inflammation, keeping the nasal passages dry, eliminating causes, reducing sinusitis attacks.
Some treatments to relieve symptoms of chronic sinusitis are:
  • Saline nasal irrigation, able to reduce the gathering of fluids and cleared substances that cause irritation and allergies.
  • Warm compresses, helps to reduce pain in sinus and nasal cavities.
  • Decongestants spray and nasal drops, follow doctor's instructions for the duration of use.
Sometimes antibiotics are needed if the cause of sisnusitis is a bacterial infection. Just like acute sinusitis, the doctor will give immunotherapy if the sinusitis is caused by an allergic reaction.
If treatment and treatment do not also make the chronic sinusitis condition improve, usually due to the imperfect sinus structural abnormalities so that the sinus outlet is blocked. So doctors can also take a sinus surgery or BSEF. This operation is very effective in reducing the symptoms that appear.The surgical procedure will be performed under the general anesthetic effect for the patient, but this surgery can also be done with local anesthesia. The patient's nose will be numbed.When surgery, the surgeon will insert the endoscope into the nose. The endoscope is a small tube with a camera lens at the end to enlarge the view from inside the nose.
The doctor can see the open part of the sinus drainage channel. After this, the surgeon will do:
  • Appointment of tissues, eg nasal polyps that block the affected sinus tract.
  • Pumping small balloons to open drainage channels from sinuses. This process is better known as the dilation of a balloon catheter.
This operation aims to improve your sinus drainage and help the sinus function normally again. The surgeon will also insert an implant that can eventually dissolve by itself. This implant will keep the sinus open and can channel the steroid mometasone directly to the sinus wall. 

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