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Indigestion

Indigestion is a term that describes pain originating from the stomach, small intestine, or even esophagus due to a number of conditions. Another term of ulcer disease is dyspepsia.

Heartburn can be caused by many things, including the result of open wounds that appear in the inner lining of the stomach ulcers, bacterial infections of Helicobacter pylori, side effects of the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and stress.
Although most heartburn can be treated without the need to consult a doctor, but a medical doctor's examination remains necessary if the ulcer is accompanied by you being vomited often, you become difficult to swallow and lose weight, and if you and have stepped 55 years into on.

If you are proven heartburn, then the doctor will prescribe medication. Some examples of drugs that can be used to treat heartburn are antacids, H2 receptor antagonists (H2RA), proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), alginates, antibiotics, prokinetics, and antidepressants.

Heartburn is a common illness in the World. According to data conducted at several endoscopic centers in Indonesia there are about 7000 cases of ulcers with 86.4 percent of these being functional dyspepsia. Functional dyspepsia is an uncommon condition for ulcer disease.

Symptoms

In addition to pain in the upper abdomen (the area between the navel and under the breastbone), symptoms of heartburn can be:
  •     The heat on the upper abdomen
  •     Quickly feel full when eating and satiety prolonged after eating
  •     Nausea
  •     Bloating on the upper abdomen
  •     Reflux (return of food or fluid from the stomach to the esophagus)
  •     Often belch
  •     Gag
Heartburn or a sense of heat and pain in the middle of the chest (sometimes felt to the back and neck) that appear when or after eating

Heartburn, accompanied by symptoms of heartburn in the chest due to the rise of stomach acid into the esophagus, is a case of stomach ulcers that often occur.

For people with heartburn, symptoms usually will get worse if he also experienced stress. In addition to stress, the inclusion of air through the mouth when eating foods can also cause more bloating stomach and increased belching frequency.

Cause

Here are some conditions that can cause heartburn, including:
  • Gastric ulcers (open wounds that appear in the inner lining of the stomach)
  • Helicobacter pylori bacterial infection
  • Side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (eg ibuprofen and aspirin) and nitrate drugs
  • Psychological problems (eg anxiety and stress)
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (movement of stomach acid into the esophagus)
  • Too much to eat
  • Obesity
  • Eat too fast
  • Eat oily, fatty, and spicy foods
  • Smoke
  • Consume too much caffeine, soda, or alcoholic beverages
  • Too much chocolate
  • Constipation
In addition to the above conditions, ulcer disease can also occur due to complications of a disease. Examples of diseases that can cause heartburn are gallstones, pancreatitis, intestinal ischemia (reduced intestinal blood flow), intestinal blockage, celiac disease, hiatus hernia (gastric part protruding into the diaphragm), and stomach cancer.

Diagnosis

Most cases of heartburn do not require a doctor's examination, but see your doctor if your heartburn often recurs and you:
  • It's 55 years and over
  • Frequent vomiting
  • Have dysphagia or difficulty swallowing
  • Experiencing weight loss for no apparent reason
  • Remove vomiting or stool with blood
In addition, physician examination also needs to be done for patients with persistent ulcers suffering from iron deficiency anemia or persistent ulcer disease causes the emergence of a lump in the area around the stomach.

Examples of advanced examinations that may be applied by doctors, among them:
  • Examination of metabolic disorders and thyroid disorders performed in the laboratory.
  • Endoscopy and tissue sampling (biopsy) to detect problems in the upper gastrointestinal tract.
  • Stool and breath examination to detect the presence of Helicobacter pylori bacteria.
  • Scan with a CT scan or X-ray to detect intestinal obstruction.
Treatment

There are several things you can do to relieve heartburn, including:
  • Reduce or discontinue consumption of caffeine or alcohol substances when stomach ulcers are caused by both substances.
  • Avoid foods that can trigger stomach ulcers or divide meals into new feeding schedules (for example, you eat three meals a day, but each in large portions, you can change it to four or five times a day with each portion which is less).
  • Do not let yourself be overcome by anxiety and control stress. If you are unable to do so, ask a psychiatrist for help. Relaxation techniques or cognitive behavioral therapy are examples of treatments that may be suggested.
  • Stopping the consumption of ibuprofen or aspirin if heartburn is caused by these drugs. Next, consult your doctor to determine a replacement drug.
Drugs

In cases of persistent heartburn, the use of drugs is the primary choice to address this condition. Some examples of drugs that doctors usually prescribe are:
  • Antacids. This drug is able to neutralize excess stomach acid so as not to irritate the wall of the digestive tract. Antacids can be purchased without a prescription to treat the symptoms of ulcer disease are still relatively mild or medium.
  • H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA). This drug is able to reduce the amount of stomach acid.
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Like H2RA, PPI medicines aim to reduce gastric acid levels. In addition, this drug can also be prescribed for patients with heartburn who experience symptoms of heat and pain in the middle of the chest.
  • Alginate. These drugs are usually prescribed in cases of heartburn caused by reflux of stomach acid.
  • Antibiotics. This medicine will be prescribed by the doctor if the detected heartburn is caused by Helicobacter pylori bacteria.
  • Prokinetics. This drug is able to relieve symptoms of heartburn by accelerating the digestion of food.
  • Antidepressant drugs. These drugs can be prescribed by doctors to reduce the symptoms of pain during heartburn.
Complications

Some examples of complications related to heartburn are:
  • Esophageal constriction. Narrowing or stricture of the esophagus may occur in someone who often suffers from heartburn due to acid reflux. Stomach acids that rise into the esophagus can cause scarring in the esophagus and narrow the channel. Symptoms that can arise include difficulty swallowing and chest pain.
  • Eofagus Barrett. Similar to esophageal narrowing, Barrett's esophagus is caused by persistent exposure of stomach acid in the esophagus. But in this case, the cells found in the lower layer of the esophagus turn into cancer cells. These cellular changes lead to cancer of the esophagus.
  • Pyloric stenosis. This condition is caused by exposure to stomach acid in the area of ​​the pylorus (the section between the stomach and the small intestine) in the long run. Exposure causes scarring and narrows the pylorus. As a result the food becomes undigested well. In addition, vomiting can also be experienced by patients with pyloric stenosis.

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