Symptoms And Causes Of Diabetes Insipidus

Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus
The main symptoms of diabetes insipidus are always feeling thirsty and frequent urination in large quantities. You will always be haunted by thirst despite drinking a lot of water.
The amount of urine expressed by people with diabetes insipidus each day is about 3-20 liters, ranging from cases of mild diabetes insipidus to the most severe cases. Urinary sufferers experienced this condition can be as much as 3-4 times per hour.
Symptoms that appear above can interfere with your daily activities as well as your sleep patterns. As a result will appear tired, irritable, and difficult to concentrate in performing daily activities.
Diabetes insipidus in children may be more difficult to recognize, let alone the child has not been able to communicate well. Symptoms in children suffering with diabetes insipidus are:
  • Bedwetting at bedtime.
  • Easily disturbed or angry.
  • Crying excessively.
  • High body temperature or hyperthermia.
  • Weight loss for no apparent reason.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Feeling tired and exhausted.
  • Slower growth.
Be sure to see a doctor immediately if you have two major symptoms of diabetes insipidus, always feel thirsty and frequent urination in large quantities.
Causes of Diabetes Insipidus
The hypothalamus, the tissue in the brain that controls mood and appetite, is the organ that produces antidiuretic hormones. This hormone will be stored in the pituitary gland until needed. The pituitary gland itself is under the brain, and is behind the bridge of the nose. This gland will release antidiuretic hormone when the body's water content decreases to stop the production of urine in the kidney.
Diabetes insipidus occurs when the antidiuretic hormone is impaired in regulating the body's water content. As a result, the body produces a lot of urine and dispose of water in very large quantities.
The following is a further explanation of both types of diabetes insipidus.
Cranial Diabetic Insipidus
This is a condition when the body does not produce enough antidiuretic hormones and results in the amount of water wasted in the urine. Below are some of the most common causes of this type of diabetes insipidus, namely:
  • About 16 percent of cases of cranial diabetes insipidus are caused by severe head injuries that damage the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
  • About 20 percent of cases of cranial diabetes insipidus are caused due to complications from brain surgery that damage the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
  • About 25 percent of cases of cranial diabetes insipidus are caused by brain tumors that damage the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
Here are some of the less common causes of diabetes insipidus.
  • Brain cancer.
  • Lack of oxygen in the brain for example due to stroke.
  • The occurrence of infections that damage the brain, such as encephalitis and meningitis.
  • Wolfarm syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that can cause loss of vision.
About 1 in 3 cases of cranial diabetes insipidus are not known.
Diabetes Insipidus Nefrogenik
This is the condition when the antidiuretic hormone is produced according to the level required by the body. But the kidney organ is not sensitive or does not respond to this hormone.
The antidiuretic hormone normally sends signals to the tissue of the nephron in the kidney. Nephrons are small structures that control how much water is absorbed by the body and how much water is released in the form of urine. For people suffering from diabetes insipidus nefrogenik, the process of sending this signal is disrupted. As a result, people who experience it will always feel thirsty because urine is wasted in large quantities. Diabetes insipidus nefrogenik itself is divided into two types:
  • Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or otherwise known as congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Congenital diabetic nephrogenic patients are born with this condition. There are two types of mutations or genetic changes that cause congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, namely AVPR2 and AQP2. AVPR2 genetic mutations can only be transmitted from mother to son. This type of mutation occurs in 9 of 10 patients. While genetic mutations of AQP2 occur in 1 in 10 cases of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and may affect both men and women.
  • Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. This type of diabetes insipidus is not born with this condition. The most common cause of acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is lithium side effects. Lithium itself is a drug used to treat bipolar disorder. If taken in the long run, the kidney organ cells can be damaged and then no longer able to respond to antidiuretic hormones. Nearly 50 percent of people will develop niprogenic diabetes insipidus if taking this drug in the long run. Be sure to perform kidney organ examinations once every three months as long as you consume lithium. 
Other causes of this condition other than lithium are:
  • Pielonephritis or kidney infection. Kidney organs are damaged by infection.
  • Urinary tract obstruction. The inhibition of one or both urinary tracts that connect the kidney to the bladder, such as kidney stones.
  • Hyperkalemia. Excess amount of calcium in the blood can damage the kidneys.
  • Hypokalemia. The amount of potassium in the blood is small, when all the cells in the body need potassium to function properly.

Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Insomnia

Diagnosis of Insomnia
In diagnosing insomnia, the doctor will usually first collect information from the patient about his medical history. The doctor will ask if the patient has a health problem (physical or psychological) or is taking certain medications that may make it difficult to sleep.
In addition, the doctor will also ask whether the patient has a habit of consuming caffeine or alcohol, in addition to asking about diet, exercise, and sleep routine.
If necessary, the doctor will perform further tests if insomnia is suspected to be caused by health problems, one of which is a blood test to check thyroid hormone levels.
To determine the severity of insomnia, patients can make a sleep diary for two weeks. Some of the information that should be included in the sleep diary usually includes the time it takes for the patient to sleep, about what time he or she starts sleeping, how many times he wakes up at night, and at what time the patient wakes up.
In addition to these, the patient may also include some information about whether the patient is feeling stressed or tired during the day, whether he or she takes a nap, and meals and sports.
Through all the information and data collected that doctors can provide advice on treatment and may also prescribe the appropriate medication in accordance with the conditions underlying the occurrence of insomnia.
Treatment of Insomnia
In treating insomnia, the first thing a doctor does is find out what the root cause is. If the insomnia is based on certain habits, then the doctor will advise the patient to change his habit. For example advise not to consume caffeinated beverages, smoking, and liquor before bed. In addition, doctors will suggest setting bedtime and waking up each day in a disciplined manner. Finally, patients will be advised not to take a nap.
If insomnia is caused by a health problem, then the doctor will first overcome the underlying condition and of course with the adjustment measures are adjusted so as not to cause side effects that can aggravate insomnia.
If the patient continues to experience insomnia despite improving lifestyle, the doctor will usually advise patients to follow specific cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Even if needed, doctors can prescribe sleeping pills.
Overcoming insomnia with cognitive behavioral therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy for treating insomnia or CBT-I is usually recommended for those who have experienced a sleep disorder that does not improve after a change in sleep routine. CBT-I is performed with a doctor's guidance with the aim of changing the thoughts and negative behaviors that cause insomnia, into positive thoughts and behaviors.
During CBT-I therapy, patients will be taught how to reduce stress or thoughts that can interfere with sleep, and are taught how to relieve tension with relaxation. If needed, the doctor will measure the patient's relaxation level with the help of a sensor device installed in the patient's body.
In CBT-I therapy, patients will also be taught how to set their minds to be able to associate the bedroom with sleep alone. In addition, patients will be guided in order to be able to set sleep and waking time consistently.
In addition to the above methods of treatment, there are other things that are included in CBT-I therapy, among them is paradoxical intention to help patients who have trouble starting sleep but have no problem in maintaining sleep. Sleep restriction therapy may also be recommended to improve sleep time gradually.
To know each progress that has been achieved by patients, usually the doctor will ask the patient to keep filling the sleep diary.
Overcome insomnia with sleeping pills
Sleep medicine is usually only used by doctors as a last resort, when insomnia is no longer able to be overcome with changes in lifestyle and cognitive therapy or when the severity of insomnia is high.
Sleeping pills are generally prescribed with the lowest possible dose and with the shortest possible length of time. So it means that the use of sleeping pills is only temporary. Doctors will usually be reluctant to prescribe sleeping pills in the long run because it still will not address the underlying causes of insomnia.
For insomnia that causes the sufferer to experience fatigue, severe stress, or sudden awakening at night, the doctor may prescribe zopiclone or zolpidem. Usually these two sleeping pills are given with the lowest possible doses within a maximum period of one month. Both zopiclone and zolpidem have side effects such as dry mouth, headache, nausea, or vomiting.
For insomnia sufferers have difficulty getting to sleep, doctors can prescribe zaleplon. Common side effects of using this drug are tingling, pain during menstruation in women, and short-term memory loss. Zaleplon is usually prescribed in a maximum half-month period with the lowest possible dose.
If insomniacs experience severe anxiety or stress, doctors may prescribe a class of sedatives such as benzodiazepines to make the patient relax and sleep well.
In addition to causing dependence, sleep disorder sleep can sometimes continue until the next day, especially in the elderly. Therefore for those of you who have a busy routine and like to bring your own vehicle, should ask your doctor for sleeping pills provided can be tailored to your condition.
Prevention of Insomnia
There are several preventive measures you can take to avoid getting insomnia, among them is to maintain the comfort of the bedroom and implement a healthy lifestyle.
Avoid consuming large portions of food, alcoholic beverages, and smoking before bedtime. Similar to caffeinated beverages, if you like to drink tea or coffee, stop consuming the drink at least a few hours before bedtime. Do things that can help cause drowsiness, such as bathing or drinking warm milk.
If you still are not sleepy, do not force yourself to sleep. You better get up and do other activities, like watching TV, chatting with family, or reading a book. After you get sleepy and feel tired, then go back to the room. Avoid lying in bed for a long time feeling anxious or watching the clock. If necessary, you can write the things that make you worry following the solution.
Keep your room clean so you can sleep comfortably and avoid the disease. If noise or light from outside the room disturbs your sleep, then wear earplugs or blinders as a solution.
Try to get up at the same time each day despite lack of sleep. If you are tired and sleepy during the day, do not sleep because it will only make you difficult to sleep back at night. Do exercise about thirty minutes per day on a regular basis, such as cycling or a leisurely stroll. In addition to keeping the body fit, exercise can also make you sleep soundly. However, it should be remembered that the exercise deadline is four hours before bedtime.
Apart from being a way to prevent insomnia, the steps above can you apply as a method of treating insomnia at home without having to go to the doctor. If insomnia still occurs after the tips are lived, then you should see a doctor.

Definition of Ectopic Pregnancy

Definition of Ectopic Pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancy is a condition when ovum conception takes place outside the womb (usually in one of the fallopian tubes).
Pregnancy begins with an egg cell that has been fertilized by a sperm cell. In the normal process, the fertilized egg will stay in the fallopian tube for about three days, before it is released into the uterus. Inside the womb, this egg will continue to grow until labor time arrives. However there is the possibility of a fertilized egg being attached to an organ other than the uterus and this is called an ectopic pregnancy.
The fallopian tube is the organ that is most often attached to the egg. While other organs that may be the site of the development of ectopic pregnancy include the abdominal cavity, ovary, and cervix or cervix.
Causes of Ectopic Pregnancy
One of the most common causes of ectopic pregnancy is failure of fallopian tubes, for example because of inflammatory or inflammatory processes. This damage will block the fertilized egg to enter the uterus so that it eventually sticks in the fallopian tube itself or other organs.
In addition, unbalanced hormone levels or abnormal development of a fertilized egg can sometimes act as a trigger.
Risk Factors Ectopic Pregnancy
There are a number of factors that can trigger an ectopic pregnancy. These risk factors include:
  • Choice of contraceptives. The use of contraceptive devices of the spiral or intrauterine device (IUD) aims to prevent pregnancy. However, if pregnancy persists, it is likely that this pregnancy is ectopic.
  • Have had an ectopic pregnancy before. Women who have experienced this condition have a higher risk to return to experience it.
  • Have an infection or inflammation. Women who have had inflammatory fallopian tubes or pelvic inflammatory disease from sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea or chlamydia (chlamydia), have a higher risk for ectopic pregnancy.
  • Fertility problems and treatment can sometimes trigger an ectopic pregnancy.
  • The process of sterilization and vice versa. Inadequate tubal binding or tubal binding procedures are also at risk of triggering an ectopic pregnancy.
Symptoms of Ectopic Pregnancy
Initially, ectopic pregnancy tended to be asymptomatic or had a sign similar to that of an ordinary pregnancy before finally another symptom indicated an ectopic pregnancy. Among others are:
  • Pain in the lower abdomen that usually occurs on 1 side.
  • Pain in the pelvis.
  • Mild vaginal bleeding.
  • Dizzy or limp.
  • Nausea and vomiting accompanied by pain.
  • Pain in the shoulder.
  • Pain or pressure on the rectum during bowel movements.
  • If the fallopian tube is torn, great bleeding may occur that may trigger a loss of consciousness.
Ectopic pregnancy includes medical conditions requiring emergency treatment. Therefore, you should immediately go to the hospital if you experience these symptoms.
Diagnosis of Ectopic Pregnancy
In addition to asking about general health conditions, the doctor will hold a physical examination of the pelvic cavity. But ectopic pregnancy can not be confirmed only by physical examination. Doctors also require ultrasound or blood tests.
The most accurate ultrasound method for detecting an ectopic pregnancy is a transvaginal ultrasound. This procedure will confirm the location of ectopic pregnancy as well as fetal heart rate.
In the early days of pregnancy, especially 5 to 6 weeks early after conception, pregnancy may not yet be detectable through ultrasound. In this condition the doctor may recommend a blood test to identify an ectopic pregnancy. This test is used to detect the presence of the hormone hCG (Human chorionic gonadotropin), this hormone produced the placenta during early pregnancy. In ectopic pregnancy, hCG hormone levels tend to be lower than normal pregnancies.
Steps to Treat Ectopic Pregnancy
The fertilized egg will not grow normally if it is not in the uterus. Therefore, ectopic tissue must be removed to avoid complications that can be fatal.
Women who are suspected of having an ectopic pregnancy should be immediately taken to the hospital for treatment as soon as possible. Pregnancy early detection without a normal developing fetus in the womb is generally treated with methotrexate injections. This drug will stop the growth as well as destroy the cells that have been formed.
The doctor will monitor the patient's hCG levels after receiving the injections. If the hCG levels in the patient's blood remain high, this usually indicates that the patient needs methotrexate injections again. Potential side effects of this medicine include nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain can also appear in 3 days or 1 week after.
Ectopic pregnancy can also be treated with surgery. This procedure is usually performed through a keyhole or laparoscopic operation. The umbilical fallopian tubes will be repaired if possible.
Complications and Prevention of Ectopic Pregnancy
Incorrect diagnosis and delayed treatment of late ectopic pregnancy can lead to severe bleeding and even death from tearing of the fallopian tubes or uterus. If experiencing these complications, the patient should undergo emergency surgery through open surgery. The fallopian tube may be repairable, but it should generally be removed.
Handling with surgery also has its own risks. Some complications that may occur include bleeding, infection, and damage to the organs around the operated part.
Ectopic pregnancy can not be prevented completely. In order to avoid this condition, you must avoid or reduce the risk factor. An example is by undergoing blood and ultrasound tests as early detection or monitoring the progress of pregnancy. Especially for women who have had ectopic pregnancy.

Understanding Dry Eyes

Understanding Dry Eyes
Dry eye disease is a condition of the eyes that lack fluid from tears that are volatile or tear production is too little.
Other names of dry eye diseases are keratoconjunctivitis sicca or dry eye syndrome. Someone who has this disease will get symptoms, such as:
  • Red eye
  • Eyes swollen
  • Eyes are hot
  • Eyes hurt
  • Eyes felt gritty and dry
  • Eyes itch
  • Vision becomes sensitive to sunlight
  • Temporary blurry vision improved when blinking
  • The presence of thin mucous membranes around the eyes
  • The upper and lower eyelids stick together when you wake up.
The severity of dry eye diseases varies, ranging from mild to severe levels with pain or even complications. In most cases, the symptoms are considered mild.
Cause of Dry Eyes
The decline or disruption of tear production, as well as the rapid evaporation of tears in cases of dry eye disease can be triggered by several factors, including:
  • Age (most cases of dry eye disease occur in the elderly).
  • Hormonal changes, such as when pregnant, when using contraceptive pills, and when approaching the menopause.
  • The activities and habits that cause the eye frequency to flicker are reduced such as reading, working in front of a computer, and writing.
  • Certain diseases, such as blepharitis, meibomian gland dysfunction, contact dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, allergic conjunctivitis, Sjogren's syndrome, HIV, scleroderma, bell's palsy, and lupus
  • Injury to the eye
  • Exposure to radiation
  • Side effects of contact lens wear
  • Side effects of laser surgery on the eyes (Lasik)
  • Side effects of medications (eg antidepressants, diuretics, beta-blockers, and antihistamines)
  • The environment (eg living in high areas, or dry climates, hot, and windy)
Diagnosis of Dry Eyes
Examination of dry eye disease can be done by an ophthalmologist by looking at the signs seen in the eyes, as well as symptoms that are felt by the patient. In addition to regular checks, sometimes doctors also require special examination techniques to strengthen the analysis.
One type of test to determine if a patient has dry eye disease or not is Schirmer's test. Through this test the doctor will measure the level of dryness in the eye by attaching a special piece of paper that can absorb fluid in the lower eyelid for 5 minutes. If in that time the wet area of ​​paper is less than 10 millimeters long, it means the patient has dry eye disease.
To find out how fast the tears dry up, the doctor can perform a test called Fluorescein dye test. The test in which is assisted by a special dye of yellow and orange color can also be used to detect any damage to the surface of the eye.
In addition to Fluorescein dye test, damage to the surface of the eye can also be detected by the Lissamine green test.
Dry Eye Treatment
Before going to the doctor, try to treat yourself first dry eyes if the symptoms are still relatively mild. Use free-selling eye drops in pharmacies that have the properties of moisturizing the eye or serve as a substitute for tears.
If your own treatment at home does not work, then see a doctor. By your doctor, you will usually be prescribed medications that can stimulate tear production or increase the amount of tears, as well as reduce the risk of damage to the cornea.
If medication is not able to cope with dry eye, then the doctor will offer you the procedure of blockage of a tear ducts or a punk plug. Through this procedure, the exhaust holes located in the corner of the eye will be blocked so that the eye does not dry quickly. Procedures of the punk stop are temporary and some are permanent. If required, a permanent blockage procedure will be performed by the physician and of course with the patient's consent.
Dry Eye Prevention
Dry eye disease can be prevented by:
  • Keeping eye clean and surrounding areas.
  • Protect your eyes from exposure to dust if living in dry and windy areas.
  • Using air-humidifying products that are sold freely in the market.
  • Avoid wearing eye make-ups such as eyeliner and mascara.
  • Eat foods rich in omega-3 and omega-7 substances.
  • Protecting your eyes from exposure to smoke when on the road.
  • Rest your eyes if it feels tired or tense after working all day in front of a computer screen.

This is the Dangers of Sinusitis When a Complication Occurs

This is the Dangers of Sinusitis When a Complication Occurs
At first glance, the symptoms of sinusitis are almost similar to the flu. However, if there are symptoms that are not common, be careful as a complication of the danger of sinusitis that immediately needs to be handled by a doctor.
Most of the sinusitis is caused by a virus that heals for about a week. When sinusitis symptoms continue 10 days or more be aware of bacterial infections that can cause complications.
Disturbance of Sinus Wall Causes
Sinusitis or sinus infection is an inflammation that occurs in the sinus wall cavity. The causes of inflammation vary, ranging from viruses, fungi, bacteria or allergies. Inflammation caused by sinusitis causes the cavity is not able to remove the fluid as it should, so that mucus is formed.
Symptoms that are often complained of include a clogged nose or pain in the face and headache.
Danger of sinusitis in case of complications is rare, but can be very dangerous and life-threatening. Men are more likely to have complications from sinusitis than women.
Some complications caused by the danger of sinusitis, among others:
1.Chronic sinusitis
Acute sinusitis may progress to chronic sinusitis over a longer period of time. Chronic sinusitis can last for more than 3 months.
2.Infection of eye sockets
This is a condition of infection of the back of the eye socket. This condition is the most frequent complication of sinusitis characterized by swelling of the eyelid, visual impairment, difficulty moving the eyeball, and other eye disorders based on the location of the infection. To overcome orbital cellulitis, antibiotic administration by infusion will be suggested. This condition can lead to visible power interference, and even permanent blindness.
3.Infection of blood vessels around the sinuses
This condition is also called cavernous sinus thrombosis. Symptoms include decreased eyelids, pain around the eyes, headache, and fever.
4.Osteomyelitis
Is an infection of the front bone of the head that causes swelling of the eyelids, high fever, severe headache, nausea and vomiting and pain when seeing the light. This condition needs to be confirmed with a CT scan. In addition to using antibiotics, treatment requires surgery and fluid drainage on the sinuses.
5.Meningitis
Infection that occurs when inflammation of the protective membrane of the brain, the fluid that fills around the brain, and the central nervous system. Symptoms include high fever, severe headache, stiff neck, difficulty walking, confusion, nausea and vomiting.
6.The disappearance of part or all of olfactory power
Inflammation of the nose and the swelling of the nerves used as the sense of smell. This loss of ability can be temporary, or even permanent.
Symptoms to Look Out for
Nearly most sinus infections rarely cause complications, but when it comes the dangers of complicated sinusitis, these conditions can be life-threatening. Make sure you know the signs of complications so you can get treatment as soon as possible.
One of the most common symptoms of sinusitis complications is the eyes and the area around the eyes can not function normally. One or both eyes appear red or swollen. Often accompanied by severe headaches, high fever, and drowsiness. In addition, other symptoms are classified as dangerous such as nausea and vomiting, difficulty walking, even to decreased consciousness.
If any of these symptoms occur, consult your doctor for treatment and prevention of dangerous complications from sinusitis.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a term used for a number of diseases that attack the lungs for the long term. This disease prevents airflow from the lungs so that people will have difficulty in breathing.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is generally a combination of two respiratory diseases, namely chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Bronchitis is an infection of the air passages leading to the lungs causing swelling of the bronchial walls and the production of fluid in the airways excessively. While emphysema is a condition of damage to the bags of air in the lungs that occur gradually. The airbag will bubble and deflate as we draw and exhale. Flexibility of the air sac will decrease if a person has emphysema, consequently the amount of air coming in will decrease.
Symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
In the early stages, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) rarely show symptoms or special signs. The symptoms of this disease will appear when there is significant damage to the lungs, generally years after exposure. Therefore, pengidapnya often not aware of this disease.
There are a number of symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) that can occur and should be wary of:
  • Cough with phlegm that does not heal.
  • The more frequent wheezing, even when performing light physical activities such as cooking or wearing clothes.
  • Wheezing or breathing congestion and rang.
  • Limp.
  • Frequent lung infections.
  • Weight loss.
Recurrent attacks Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) can sometimes occur suddenly with more severe symptoms for several days and may even be harmful. This condition then subsides and can happen again. The longer a person develops Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), the symptoms that occur during a re-attack will also get worse.
If you suspect that you have symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), consult your doctor immediately. Do not delay it.
Risk Factors Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) can be caused by various things. A number of risk factors that may increase a person's risk for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) include:
  • Cigarettes. Cigarette smoke exposure in both active and passive smokers is a major factor in COPD causes and a number of other respiratory diseases. It is estimated that about one in four smokers are active in COPD.
  • Exposure to air pollution, such as motor vehicle fumes, dust, or chemicals.
  • Age. COPD will develop slowly over the years. Disease symptoms generally occur in people aged 35 to 40 years.
  • Hereditary factors. If you have a family member with COPD, you also have a higher risk of getting the same disease.
Diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Doctors commonly diagnose COPD by asking for symptoms, checking the patient's physical condition, and breathing tests. Physical examination includes examination of breath sounds through stethoscope and body mass index. Smoking history will also be asked.
Respiratory tests will be performed with a spirometer (spirometry check), a tool for measuring lung function through breathing on the machine. Two types of breaths to be measured, namely rapid breathing in one second and the total number of breaths out of the lungs.
If needed, your doctor will recommend some more detailed checks such as:
  • Blood tests to remove the possibility of other diseases, such as anemia that sometimes also causes shortness of breath.
  • X-ray of lung. The severity of the efisema as well as other lung disorders can be examined through this procedure.
  • CT scan for the physical condition of the lungs can be examined.
  • Electrocardiogram and echocardiogram to check the condition of the heart.
  • Sputum sampling.
Early diagnosis will allow you to undergo treatment as soon as possible so that the development of COPD can be inhibited.
Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
Until now, COPD includes diseases that can not be cured. Treatment aims to relieve symptoms and inhibit the progression of the disease.
However, you do not need to worry, because the right combination of treatments will allow you to live a better life. Some treatment steps that can be done include:
  • Stop smoking or avoid exposure to secondhand smoke. This is a key step to ensure that COPD does not get worse.
  • Using drugs. For example, inhalers of respiratory or respiratory tract inflammation, theophylline tablets that will dilate the respiratory tract, mucolytic tablets (sputum and nasal diluents), antibiotic tablets, and steroid tablets.
  • Therapy for the lungs, eg nebulization (machines that spray sterile liquid vapors that have been mixed with breathing drugs) and oxygen therapy.
  • Lung rehabilitation program is a physical exercise that will usually be lived for approximately 1.5 months. In this program, people will be taught how to control symptoms as well as various knowledge about COPD.
In addition to medical treatment, there are simple steps that we can do to inhibit the increasing damage to the lungs. Some of them are:
  • Use medicine as recommended by physician. Do not stop without discussing with your doctor even if your condition feels better.
  • Periodically check with your doctor so that your health condition can be monitored.
  • Applying a healthy lifestyle, such as maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine.
  • Avoid air pollution, such as cigarette smoke and motor vehicle fumes.
  • Undergo regular vaccinations, for example flu vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine.

Understanding Children Who Have Obesity and Risk

Understanding Children Who Have Obesity and Risk
Funny! Yes, that's the first word in your head when you see the kids are plump and have chubby cheeks. However, be careful. Body that is bland and fertile, could be an indication of childhood obesity.
Seeing the adorable, stocky kids make adults feel like kissing and pinching them, right? Usually, parents often assume that a fertile child is a healthy child, because they like to eat. However, you should not be happy. Children with overweight bodies may be obese, and some dangerous diseases such as high cholesterol, diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease are ready to lurk your child anytime.
Excess Fat Can Cause Obesity In Children
Body fat has an important role, such as to store energy, regulate body temperature, withstand shocks, and various other functions. However, the excess amount of fat in your child's body can lead to obesity.
Many people think that obesity with overweight has the same meaning. In fact, both have different meanings. Obesity is a chronic condition associated with an excess amount of fat in the body. While overweight has a meaning that is the condition where a person's body weight exceeds the limit of normal weight. The weight can come from muscle, bone, fat, and water in a person's body.
Childhood obesity is caused by various reasons, such as due to an energy imbalance between the calories that come with the issued. It starts from eating unhealthy foods, and lack of physical activity in children. In addition, genetic factors, hormones, stress, the presence of problems in the family, as well as boredom that hit, can make children tend to overeat.
Obesity In Children Can Endanger Their Health
Obesity that occurs in children is obviously very dangerous. Because the excess fat that is on the child's body can invite various diseases that interfere with his health.
Excess amount of fat is not only an impact on the physical health of your baby alone, but also psychic. This situation can make it less confident because it has a different body size, tend to experience depression, have anxiety levels higher than other children, and make it as a victim of bullying or mockery material by his friends, even depression can occur. And usually, obese children will still experience it as adults, especially if one of their parents is also obese.
However, not all children who look fat and big body must be obese. Because the stage of development of each child is different, and you can not expect your child to be obese just from looking at her body. To find out if your child is obese or not, consult a doctor immediately. Your doctor will calculate the body mass index (BMI) of your baby, which is the calculation of height and weight of the child.
If a child's BMI is between 85 and 94 percent, then the child is overweight or overweight. Whereas if the IMT 95 percent or more, then the child is obese. However, your doctor is not only fixated on the number of IMT alone, the doctor will pay attention to how the child's eating habits, health, activities, and family health history, especially obesity history.
To keep the child protected from obesity, apply some of these ways. Among other things by choosing vegetables and fruits when shopping for food, limit fast food and sweet drinks, and serve foods according to the right portion (so your baby is not excessive when eating). In addition, you can invite your baby to do physical activities together with you.
If you have a fat child, it would not hurt to check with your doctor. Consult immediately to doctors and obese children can get the right handling and lifestyle changes.

Understanding Fatty Liver

Understanding Fatty Liver
Fatty liver is a condition when the fat in the liver accumulates up to more than 5-10 percent of the total weight of the organ.
Diseases with other names steatosis is mostly suffered by people aged between 40-60 years. Most cases of fatty liver cause no symptoms in the patient and do not even cause permanent damage to the liver. But in patients who happen to experience symptoms can feel some of the following, including:
  • Missing appetite.
  • Weight loss.
  • The body feels tired and weak.
  • Concentration is disturbed.
  • Confused.
  • Nausea.
  • Pain in the middle of the abdomen or on the upper right abdomen.
  • Swelling of the liver.
In rare cases, fatty liver can also cause symptoms of dark-colored patches on the skin of the arms and neck.
The Cause of Liver Escape
Here are some things that can cause fatty liver disease, among them:
  • Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages
  • Side effects of medications (eg steroids, aspirin, tetracyline, and tamoxifen).
  • High cholesterol levels in the blood
  • Obesity.
  • Hereditary factors.
  • Diabetes.
  • Hepatitis C disease
  • Autoimmune disease.
  • Mutual.
  • The weight dropped drastically.
  • Pregnancy (this case is rare).
Diagnosis of Fatty Liver
Inflammation of the liver can be detected by the doctor through examination of the patient's abdomen.
Some questions that may be asked by doctors include:
  • Does it feel weak?
  • Is there a decrease in appetite?
  • History of the disease ever suffered, the strongest of hepatitis (generally hepatitis A, B, C).
  • Historical use of alcoholic beverages, drugs and supplements.
Some scanning tests (eg ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI scan) are usually instructed to detect fatty liver disease. Through this scanning test, the amount of fat that accumulates in the liver can be seen on the screen.
In addition to scanning tests, doctors can also detect fatty liver disease by examining liver tissue samples through biopsy or by examining liver enzymes through blood tests.
Fatty Liver Treatment
Doctors almost never prescribe a specific drug or suggest surgery to treat fatty liver disease. Usually doctors will only advise patients to:
  • Reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages or stop them altogether.
  • Reducing weight.
  • Controlling blood sugar and cholesterol levels.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Eat healthy foods, such as wheat, vegetables, and fruits.
  • Limit consumption of high-calorie foods, such as rice, corn, bread, and potatoes.
  • Eat chicken and fish instead of red meat.
  • Avoid high sugar drinks (eg juice or energy drinks).
If fatty liver is caused by a disease, then the underlying condition should be treated first by the doctor.
In the case of acute fatty liver (short term) during pregnancy, treatment should be done as soon as possible in the hospital because it can endanger the life of the mother and the baby is conceived. Some examples of serious risks that can happen are kidney and liver organ failure, severe bleeding, and severe infection.
Once the pregnant patient is diagnosed with a fatty liver condition, the doctor will advise to remove the baby as soon as possible, then treat the patient intensively for several days or weeks until it recovers.
Complications of Alcoholics
If an alcoholic does not stop drinking habits despite having been exposed to fatty liver, then the condition may develop more severe into cirrhosis with symptoms:
  • Muscle mass decreases.
  • The buildup of fluid in the body.
  • Jaundice.
  • Bleeding.
  • Failing liver organ.

Understanding Chronic Kidney Failure

Understanding Chronic Kidney Failure
Chronic kidney disease or better known in the community with the term chronic renal failure is a condition when kidney function begins to decline gradually. Indonesia Renal Registry defines chronic renal failure as kidney damage, may be tissue abnormalities, blood and urine composition or renal imaging tests, experienced more than three months.
The Chronic Kidney Failure status changes to end-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) when the kidneys are no longer functioning. At this stage there has usually been a buildup of body waste, fluids, and electrolytes that could harm the body if without artificial screening (dialysis) or kidney transplant.
Chronic Kidney Failure itself, usually does not cause symptoms that make people with this disease usually do not realize the symptoms until it reaches an advanced stage. Chronic Kidney Failure is usually detected at an early stage when a blood or urine test is performed.
Advanced Chronic Kidney Failure generally develops symptoms: shortness of breath, nausea, fatigue, ankle, leg or hand swelling due to fluid buildup in the body's circulation, shortness of breath, and the appearance of blood in the urine.
Regular blood and urine checks are recommended every year for people at high risk for chronic kidney disease. You are at high risk, including if you have high blood pressure, diabetes, and a family history of chronic kidney disease.
Kidney Function and Causes of Chronic Kidney Failure
The kidneys are located under the ribs. The shape resembles a pair of nuts on both sides of the body.
The kidneys function to filter waste and excess fluid from the blood before discharge through urine. Kidney also has many other functions that are not less important, namely:
  • Regulates levels of chemicals in the body that help the heart and muscles to work properly.
  • Helps regulate blood pressure.
  • Produce vitamin D-like substances that maintain bone health.
  • Producing the hormone glycoprotein is called erythropoietin which helps stimulate the production of red blood cells.
Some conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure are some of the causes of chronic renal failure. In the long run, these conditions cause damage to the kidney resulting in decreased kidney function.
People with Chronic Kidney Failure in Indonesia
Based on the results of Basic Health Research in 2013 by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, 0.2% of the total population of Indonesia experienced this condition. Central Sulawesi province is the region with the highest number that is, 0.5% of the total population in the province.
From the data of 7th Report of the Indonesian Renal Registry in 2014, patients with kidney failure who perform the most frequent dialysis due to hypertension (37%). Followed diabetes (27%), and congenital abnormalities (10%).
Various Ways of Handling Chronic Kidney Failure
Diagnosed with Chronic Kidney Failure can make you and your relatives feel anxious. Consulting with your doctor and fellow sufferers can lead you to find ways to prevent the disease from taking over your life.
This is because there is no drug that can cure kidney failure. Treatment of this disease only focuses on slowing or stopping the progression of the disease and preventing the emergence of other serious conditions. In addition, therapy also aims to reduce the symptoms caused by Chronic Kidney Failure.
Changes that occur in the circulation of the body to make people with chronic kidney disease become more at risk of suffering a stroke or heart disease.
In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) should be performed dialysis or kidney transplant to replace renal function that has been damaged.
Avoidance from Chronic Kidney Failure
Sufferers of certain conditions that are at risk of leading to chronic kidney disease such as diabetes and high blood pressure are advised to be wary of their disease progression. Lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, avoiding the consumption of drugs that can damage the kidneys and avoid excessive consumption of liquor will help prevent kidney failure.

Gender Surgery: Not Just Complicated, But Risky

Sex surgery that allows men to be female or otherwise is still difficult to accept in Indonesia. However, hospitals in Indonesia remain in demand for genital surgery every year.
Sex surgery is a surgical action against a person who experiences a difference between sex and behavior, or often called transsexual. However, genital surgery can also be performed on people who have multiple genitalia since birth.
Stages of Sex Operation
When a person wants to have a genital surgery, it can not be done immediately. There are several stages of the procedure that must be lived.
The first stage
A mental health evaluation should be performed by a psychologist or other psychiatrist prior to genital surgery. It must be proven that there is a gender identity disorder (gender identity disorder), which makes the patient feel depressed due to gender that is considered inappropriate.
Psychologists should also provide further understanding of risk and advanced stages prior to genital surgery.
Phase Two
Before a person is allowed to undergo a genital surgery, they must undergo hormone therapy according to the desired sex. The purpose of hormone therapy is to find out how that change affects a person. This therapy will help the body initiate changes to the desired sex.
For a man who wants to be a woman, then he needs to receive homon estrogen. Meanwhile, for women who want to be a man, it must get the hormone testosterone. In fact, this therapy can be continued after genital surgery performed. Generally, hormone therapy is recommended for one year before sex surgery is performed. When hormone therapy is not sufficient, then consider the possibility of genital surgery.
Third phase
For female genital surgery to be male, the procedure includes removing both breasts, removal of the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. In addition, genital surgery also includes the formation of the penis, scrotum, and testicular and penile implants. To ensure the penis works properly, additional surgery may be required.
Meanwhile, for male genital surgery to be female among others required to remove the testicles and penis as well as the formation of the vulva, vagina, and also the clitoris. Additional surgery required include implantation of breast and plastic surgery for more feminine facial shape.
Pay attention to Risk
Sex change is not without risk. Long-term hormone therapy has the risk of causing acne, hair loss, weight gain, gallstones, sleep apnea disorders, to blood clots.
In addition, there is also a risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, brain tumors, and other dangerous conditions. Hormone therapy can also reduce fertility, until it may cause infertility, even if therapy has been discontinued.
Prior to surgery, the doctor may ask obese patients to lose weight, or ask for a temporary stop smoking habit. Hormone therapy is likely to be discontinued some time before surgery.
In addition, certain health conditions such as diabetes and blood clotting disorders should be cautious in undergoing genital surgery procedures, as the risks of anesthesia and postoperative complications become higher.
Especially for people with hepatitis C and HIV, there is the possibility of having difficulty in undergoing genital surgery. People with hepatitis C and HIV are at increased risk of complications, so not many surgeons are willing to perform genital surgery in both groups.
Genital surgery is not a simple procedure that can be done at any time when desired. There are stages to be followed before undergoing the procedure, including health risks to be understood. Careful consideration should be taken before deciding on genital surgery.
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