What Is Thalassemia?

Hit-topic.tk - Talasemia is a hereditary blood disorder that causes your body to produce less hemoglobin or abnormal hemoglobin. Hemoglobin helps red blood cells spread oxygen in your body. The low level of hemoglobin can cause anemia, a disease that makes you feel weak and tired. Severe anemia can damage organs and cause death. 

What Type of Thalassemia?

There are two main types of thalassemia, namely alpha and beta. The most common is beta thalassemia.  Beta Thalassemia  You need alpha and beta-globin to make hemoglobin. Beta thalassemia occurs when one or both of the two genes that make beta-globin do not work or only partially work.
If you have one damaged gene, then you may have mild anemia and may not require treatment. This condition is called beta thalassemia minor or beta thalassemia trait. Beta-minor thalassemia occurs when you get a normal gene from one parent and the thalassemia gene from the other.
When both genes are damaged, that means you get thalassemia genes from both parents. You may have moderate or severe anemia.       
  • If you have a moderate anemia (called beta thalassemia intermedia), you may need a blood transfusion.
  • While people with severe anemia (called beta thalassemia major or Cooley anemia) require lifelong blood transfusions. Anemia symptoms usually begin within a few months after birth.
Alpha Thalassemia  This type of thalassemia occurs when one or more of the four alpha-globin genes that make the hemoglobin are lost or damaged.
  • If one gene is missing or damaged: your red blood cells may be smaller than normal. You will not experience any symptoms and will not require treatment. However, you are a silent carrier, which means you do not have thalassemia disease, but can lower the damaged gene to your child.
  • If two genes are missing or damaged: you will have a very mild anemia and usually do not require treatment. This condition is called alpha thalassemia minor or alpha thalassemia trait.
  • If three genes are missing: you will experience mild to severe anemia. This is sometimes referred to as H hemoglobin disease. If it is severe, you may need blood transfusion.
  • If all four genes are missing: This is called alpha thalassemia major or hydrops fetalis. The fetus will be stillborn, or the child will die soon after birth.
What Causes Thalassemia?

The cause is a defect in one or more genes.  If you plan to become pregnant, but your parents or relatives have thalassemia or carriers of thalassemia gene, you may want to consult with a genetic counselor before you pregnant. Genetic counselors can tell you how likely your child will have thalassemia and how severe the disease is.

What are the symptoms of thalassemia?

mild thalassemia usually causes no symptoms. A moderate or severe thalassemia can cause anemia. For example, you may feel weak, tired easily tired, and feel short of breath. Other symptoms can also occur depending on how severe your thalassemia and thalassemia caused problems.  The children with severe thalassemia can grow slowly (fail to grow), have abnormally shaped skull bones, and have problems with eating, frequent fevers, and diarrhea.

How to Diagnose Thalassemia?

The doctor will check and ask about your medical history. Examinations that may be required include:
  • Complete blood count.
  • A genetic test to see if you have a gene that causes thalassemia.
  • Iron grade test.
  • A blood test that measures the number of different types of hemoglobin to help determine what type of thalassemia you have.
If you have thalassemia, then your other family members should consult a doctor for an examination.
How is Thalassemia Management?

Treatment of thalassemia depends on how severe your condition.   Most health centers have treatment centers for blood disorders, and can help you and your family get the best care.

  • Mild thalassemia is the most common form of thalassemia. This thalassemia does not require treatment.
  • Moderate thalassemia can be treated with blood transfusions and folic acid supplements. Folic acid is the vitamin your body needs to produce red blood cells.
Severe thalassemia can be treated by:
  • Blood transfusion.
  • Folic acid.
  • Drugs used for chemotherapy. These medications help your body to make normal hemoglobin.
If you have had recurrent blood transfusions, your body may have too much iron content. Excessive iron can damage your organs, especially the liver.  Make sure to avoid iron-rich vitamins, and do not take extra vitamin C because it can increase how much iron you absorb from food. \ n If you have too much iron, your doctor may give you chelation therapy, a drug that helps reduce iron from your body.  Anonymous treatment for severe thalassemia among others:
  • Bone marrow or blood cell stem cell transplant
  • Surgery to remove the spleen.
Get a flu vaccine every year and talk to your doctor about getting a pneumococcal vaccine. The vaccines can protect you from severe infections, which can make the anemia worse and cause severe disease in people with thalassemia.

Coffee May Be Kind to Your Kidneys

Hit-topic.tk - Can caffeine help people with chronic kidney disease live longer? That's the suggestion of a new study that found that among more than 2,300 Americans with chronic kidney disease, those who drank the most caffeinated drinks reduced their risk of premature death by 24 percent.

"Our study showed a dose-dependent protective effect of caffeine consumption on all-cause mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease," said lead researcher Dr. Miguel Bigotte Vieira, from the Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, in Lisbon, Portugal.

"However, our observational study cannot prove that caffeine reduces the risk of death, but only suggests the possibility of such a protective effect," he said.

Moreover, the reasons that caffeine might be protective aren't clear, and how much caffeine is too little and how much might be too much also isn't known, Bigotte Vieira added.

The findings also need to be replicated in a trial that compares caffeine consumption with no caffeine consumption before patients are counseled to drink more coffee or other caffeinated drinks, he noted.

In the study, the research team found that:
  • those who consumed the least amount of caffeine saw no reduction in death risk,
  • those who had the second higher amount reduced their risk by 12 percent,
  • those who had the third higher amount reduced their risk by 22 percent,
  • and those who consumed the most caffeine reduced their risk by 24 percent.

The association between caffeine and a reduced risk of premature death was independent of factors such as age, gender, race, family income, education, creatinine levels (a marker of kidney troubles), high blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol, body weight, previous cardiovascular problems and diet, Bigotte Vieira said.

The findings were to be presented Friday at the American Society of Nephrology annual meeting, in New Orleans. Research presented at meetings is considered preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Dr. Leslie Spry, from the Lincoln Nephrology & Hypertension, Dialysis Center in Nebraska, said, "I hope this is the case, as I sit here and drink my morning coffee." Spry is also a spokesman for the National Kidney Foundation.

"As you know, there are studies of coffee being harmful, beneficial and having no effect on health," he said.

This is yet another observational study, Spry noted, where only an association was found, not cause and effect.

Given the relatively small size of the study, and the small reduction in death risk, Spry said he's not willing to tell kidney patients that the more caffeine they drink, the longer they'll live.

"I would rather say that compared to little or no caffeine intake, those people with the highest intake of caffeine as estimated by dietary recall, may have a lower mortality, but the reason for this lower mortality is not proven by this association research," he said. (webmd.com)

Understanding Mesothelioma


Malignant mesothelioma (me-zoe-thee-lee-O-muh) is a type of cancer that occurs in the thin layer of tissue that covers the majority of your internal organs (mesothelium).

Mesothelioma is an aggressive and deadly form of cancer. Mesothelioma treatments are available, but for many people with mesothelioma, a cure is not possible.

Doctors divide mesothelioma into different types based on what part of the mesothelium is affected. Mesothelioma most often affects the tissue that surrounds the lungs (pleura). This type is called pleural mesothelioma. Other, rarer types of mesothelioma affect tissue in the abdomen (peritoneal mesothelioma), around the heart and around the testicles.

Mesothelioma doesn't include a form of noncancerous (benign) tumor that occurs in the chest and is sometimes called benign mesothelioma or solitary fibrous tumor.


Signs and symptoms of mesothelioma vary depending on where the cancer occurs.
Pleural mesothelioma, which affects the tissue that surrounds the lungs, causes signs and symptoms that may include: 

  • Chest pain under the rib cage
  • Painful coughing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Unusual lumps of tissue under the skin on your chest
  • Unexplained weight loss

Peritoneal mesothelioma, which occurs in tissue in the abdomen, causes signs and symptoms that may include:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Lumps of tissue in the abdomen
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Other forms of mesothelioma

Signs and symptoms of other types of mesothelioma are unclear, since these forms of the disease are very rare.

Pericardial mesothelioma, which affects tissue that surrounds the heart, can cause signs and symptoms such as breathing difficulty and chest pains.

Mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis, which affects tissue surrounding the testicles, may be first detected as swelling or a mass on a testicle.
When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you have signs and symptoms that may indicate mesothelioma. Signs and symptoms of mesothelioma aren't specific to this disease and, due to the rarity of mesothelioma, are more likely to be related to other conditions. If any persistent signs and symptoms seem unusual or bothersome, ask your doctor to evaluate them. Tell your doctor if you've been exposed to asbestos.


In general, cancer begins when a series of genetic mutations occur within a cell, causing the cell to grow and multiply out of control. It isn't clear what causes the initial genetic mutations that lead to mesothelioma, though researchers have identified factors that may increase the risk. It's likely that cancers form because of an interaction between many factors, such as inherited conditions, your environment, your health conditions and your lifestyle choices.

Risk Factors

Asbestos exposure: The primary risk factor for mesothelioma

Asbestos is a mineral that's found naturally in the environment. Asbestos fibers are strong and resistant to heat, making them useful in a wide variety of applications, such as in insulation, brakes, shingles, flooring and many other products.

When asbestos is broken up, such as during the mining process or when removing asbestos insulation, dust may be created. If the dust is inhaled or swallowed, the asbestos fibers will settle in the lungs or in the stomach, where they can cause irritation that may lead to mesothelioma. Exactly how this happens isn't understood. It can take 20 to 40 years or more for mesothelioma to develop after asbestos exposure.

Most people with years of asbestos exposure never develop mesothelioma. And yet, others with very brief exposure develop the disease. This indicates that other factors may be involved in determining whether someone gets mesothelioma or doesn't. For instance, you could inherit a predisposition to cancer or some other condition could increase your risk.
Risk factors

Factors that may increase the risk of mesothelioma include:

  1. Personal history of asbestos exposure. If you've been directly exposed to asbestos fibers at work or at home, your risk of mesothelioma is greatly increased.
  2. Living with someone who works with asbestos. People who are exposed to asbestos may carry the fibers home on their skin and clothing. Exposure to these stray fibers over many years can put others in the home at risk of mesothelioma. People who work with high levels of asbestos can reduce the risk of bringing home asbestos fibers by showering and changing clothes before leaving work.
  3. A family history of mesothelioma. If your parent, sibling or child has mesothelioma, you may have an increased risk of this disease.


As pleural mesothelioma spreads in the chest, it puts pressure on the structures in that area. This can cause complications, such as:
  1. Difficulty breathing
  2. Chest pain
  3. Difficulty swallowing
  4. Pain caused by pressure on the nerves and spinal cord
  5. Accumulation of fluid in the chest (pleural effusion), which can compress the lung nearby and make breathing difficult

Preparing for your appointment

If you have lung or abdominal symptoms, start by making an appointment with your family doctor. If your doctor suspects you may have mesothelioma, you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in lung diseases (pulmonologist) or abdominal problems (gastroenterologist).

Because appointments can be brief, and because there's often a lot of ground to cover, it's a good idea to be well-prepared. Here's some information to help you get ready, and what to expect from your doctor.
What you can do
  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you make the appointment, be sure to ask if there's anything you need to do in advance, such as restrict your diet.
  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.
  • Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.
  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements that you're taking or that you've taken recently.
  • Consider taking a family member or friend along. Sometimes it can be difficult to remember all the information provided during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you missed or forgot.
  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.
  • Gather any medical records, such as past chest X-rays, that relate to your condition.

Your time with your doctor is limited, so preparing a list of questions can help you make the most of your time together. List your questions from most important to least important in case time runs out. For mesothelioma, some basic questions to ask your doctor include: 

  • What is likely causing my symptoms or condition?
  • What are other possible causes for my symptoms or condition?
  • What kinds of tests do I need?
  • Can I see my X-rays or scans?
  • Is my condition likely temporary or chronic?
  • What is the best course of action?
  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach that you're suggesting?
  • I have these other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?
  • Are there any restrictions that I need to follow?
  • Should I see a specialist? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it?
  • Are there brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?
  • What will determine whether I should plan for a follow-up visit?

In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask other questions that occur to you. 

What to expect from your doctor

  • Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions. Being ready to answer them may allow more time to cover other points you want to address. Your doctor may ask:
  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms?
  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
  • How severe are your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?
  • Does it hurt to take a deep breath?
  • Do your symptoms affect your ability to work?
  • Have you ever worked with asbestos?
  • What you can do in the meantime

Try to avoid anything that worsens your signs and symptoms. For instance, if you're experiencing shortness of breath, try to take it easy until you can meet with your doctor. If your breathlessness becomes distressing or uncomfortable, seek immediate medical attention.

Tests and diagnosis

If you have signs and symptoms that might indicate mesothelioma, your doctor will conduct a physical exam to check for any lumps or other unusual signs.


Your doctor may order imaging scans, such as a chest X-ray and a computerized tomography (CT) scan of your chest or abdomen, to look for abnormalities.

Based on the findings, you may undergo further testing to determine whether mesothelioma or another disease is causing your signs and symptoms.

Biopsy, a procedure to remove a small portion of tissue for laboratory examination, is the only way to determine whether you have mesothelioma. Depending on what area of your body is affected, your doctor selects the right biopsy procedure for you.

Options include: 

  • Fine-needle aspiration. The doctor removes fluid or a piece of tissue with a small needle inserted into your chest or abdomen.
  • Thoracoscopy. Thoracoscopy allows the surgeon to see inside your chest. In this procedure, the surgeon makes one or more small incisions between your ribs. A tube with a tiny video camera is then inserted into your chest cavity — a procedure sometimes called video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Special surgical tools allow your surgeon to cut away small pieces of tissue for testing.
  • Laparoscopy. Laparoscopy allows the surgeon to see inside your abdomen. Using one or more small incisions into your abdomen, the surgeon inserts a tiny camera and special surgical tools to obtain a small piece of tissue for examination.
  • Thoracotomy. Thoracotomy is surgery to open your chest between the ribs to allow a surgeon to check for signs of disease. A sample of tissue may be removed for testing.
  • Laparotomy. Laparotomy is surgery to open your abdomen to allow a surgeon to check for signs of disease. A sample of tissue may be removed for testing.

The tissue sample is analyzed under a microscope to see whether the abnormal tissue is mesothelioma and what types of cells are involved. The type of mesothelioma you have determines your treatment plan.

Once mesothelioma is diagnosed, your doctor orders other tests to determine the extent, or stage, of the cancer. Imaging tests that may help determine the stage of your cancer may include: 

  1. CT scans of the chest and abdomen
  2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  3. Positron emission tomography (PET)

Your doctor determines which tests are more appropriate for you. Not every person needs every test.

Once the extent of pleural mesothelioma is determined, a stage is assigned.
  1. Stage I mesothelioma is considered localized cancer, meaning it's limited to one portion of the lining of the chest.
  2. Stage II mesothelioma may have spread beyond the lining of the chest to the diaphragm or to a lung.
  3. Stage III mesothelioma may have spread to other structures within the chest and may involve nearby lymph nodes.
  4. Stage IV mesothelioma is an advanced cancer that has spread more extensively within the chest. Stage IV may also indicate that mesothelioma has spread to distant areas of the body, such as the brain, liver and lymph nodes elsewhere in the chest.

Formal stages aren't available for other types of mesothelioma because these types are rare and aren't well-studied.

Treatments and drugs

What treatment you undergo for mesothelioma depends on your health and certain aspects of your cancer, such as its stage and location.

Unfortunately, mesothelioma often is an aggressive disease and for most people a cure isn't possible. Mesothelioma is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage — when it isn't possible to remove the cancer through an operation. Instead, your doctor may work to control your cancer to make you more comfortable.

Discuss treatment goals with your doctor. Some people want to do everything they can to treat their cancer, even if that means enduring side effects for a small chance of an improvement. Others prefer treatments that make them comfortable so that they can live their remaining time as symptom-free as possible.

Surgeons work to remove mesothelioma when it's diagnosed at an early stage. In some cases this may cure the cancer.

Sometimes it isn't possible to remove all of the cancer. In those cases, surgery may help to reduce the signs and symptoms caused by mesothelioma spreading in your body.

Surgical options may include: 

  • Surgery to decrease fluid buildup. Pleural mesothelioma may cause fluid to build up in your chest, causing difficulty breathing. Surgeons insert a tube or catheter into your chest to drain the fluid. Doctors may also inject medicine into your chest to prevent fluid from returning (pleurodesis).
  • Surgery to remove the tissue around the lungs or abdomen. Surgeons may remove the tissue lining the ribs and the lungs (pleurectomy) or the tissue lining the abdominal cavity (peritonectomy). This procedure won't cure mesothelioma, but may relieve signs and symptoms.
  • Surgery to remove as much of the cancer as possible (debulking). If all of the cancer can't be removed, surgeons may attempt to remove as much as possible. Debulking allows doctors to more accurately direct radiation treatments to relieve pain and fluid buildup caused by mesothelioma.
  • Surgery to remove a lung and the surrounding tissue. Removing the affected lung and the tissue that surrounds it may relieve signs and symptoms of pleural mesothelioma. If you'll be receiving radiation therapy to the chest after surgery, this procedure also allows doctors to use higher doses, since they won't need to worry about protecting your lung from damaging radiation.

Chemotherapy uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. Systemic chemotherapy travels throughout the body and may shrink or slow the growth of a mesothelioma that can't be removed using surgery. Chemotherapy may also be used before surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy) to make an operation easier or after surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy) to reduce the chance that cancer will return.

Chemotherapy drugs may also be heated and administered directly into the abdominal cavity (intraperitoneal chemotherapy), in the case of peritoneal mesothelioma. Using this strategy, chemotherapy drugs can reach the mesothelioma directly without injuring healthy cells in other parts of the body. This allows doctors to administer higher doses of chemotherapy drugs.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy focuses high-energy beams from sources such as X-rays and protons to a specific spot or spots on your body. Radiation may be used after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells. It may also help reduce signs and symptoms of advanced cancer in situations where surgery isn't an option.

Clinical trials

Clinical trials are studies of new mesothelioma treatment methods. People with mesothelioma may opt for a clinical trial for a chance to try new types of treatment. However, a cure isn't guaranteed. Carefully consider your treatment options and talk to your doctor about what clinical trials are open to you. Your participation in a clinical trial may help doctors better understand how to treat mesothelioma in the future.

Clinical trials are currently investigating a number of new approaches to mesothelioma treatment, including:
Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that attack specific abnormalities within cancer cells.
Biological therapy, which uses your body's immune system to fight cancer.
Gene therapy, which involves altering the genes inside the cancer cells in order to stop disease.

Treatment for other types of mesothelioma

Pericardial mesothelioma and mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis are very rare. Early-stage cancer may be removed through surgery. Doctors have yet to determine the best way to treat later-stage cancers, though. Your doctor may recommend other treatments to improve your quality of life.

Alternative medicine

No alternative medicine treatments have proved helpful in treating mesothelioma. But complementary and alternative treatments may help control mesothelioma signs and symptoms. Discuss options with your doctor.

Mesothelioma can cause pressure within your chest that can make you feel as if you're always short of breath. Breathlessness can be distressing. Your doctor may recommend using supplemental oxygen or taking medications to make you more comfortable, but often these aren't enough. Combining your doctor's recommended treatments with complementary and alternative approaches may help you feel better.

Alternative treatments that have shown some promise in helping people cope with breathlessness include:
Acupuncture. Acupuncture uses thin needles inserted at precise points into your skin.
Breath training. A nurse or physical therapist can teach you breathing techniques to use when you feel breathless. Sometimes you may feel breathless and begin to panic. Using these techniques may help you feel more in control of your breathing.

Relaxation exercises. Slowly tensing and relaxing different muscle groups may help you feel more at ease and breathe easier. Your doctor may refer you to a therapist who can teach you relaxation exercises so that you can do them on your own.
Sitting near a fan. Directing a fan to your face may help ease the sensation of breathlessness.
Coping and support

A diagnosis of mesothelioma can be devastating not only to you but also to your family and friends. In order to regain a sense of control, try to: 

Learn enough about mesothelioma to make decisions about your care. Write down questions to ask your doctor. Ask your health care team for information to help you better understand your disease. Good places to start looking for more information include the National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society.
Surround yourself with a support network. Close friends or family can help you with everyday tasks, such as getting you to appointments or treatment. If you have trouble asking for help, learn to be honest with yourself and accept help when you need it.

Seek out other people with cancer. Ask your health care team about cancer support groups in your community. Sometimes there are questions that can only be answered by other people with cancer. Support groups offer a chance to ask these questions and receive support from people who understand your situation. Online support message boards, such as the American Cancer Society's Cancer Survivors Network, can offer similar benefits while allowing you to remain anonymous.
Plan ahead. Ask your health care team about advance directives that give your family guidance on your medical wishes in case you can no longer speak for yourself.

Reducing your exposure to asbestos may lower your risk of mesothelioma.
Find out whether you work with asbestos

Most people with mesothelioma were exposed to the asbestos fibers at work. Workers who may encounter asbestos fibers include: 

  • Miners
  • Factory workers
  • Insulation manufacturers
  • Ship builders
  • Construction workers
  • Auto mechanics

Ask your employer whether you have a risk of asbestos exposure on the job.
Follow your employer's safety regulations

Follow all safety precautions in your workplace, such as wearing protective equipment. You may also be required to shower and change out of your work clothes before taking a lunch break or going home. Talk to your doctor about other precautions you can take to protect yourself from asbestos exposure.
Be safe around asbestos in your home

Older homes and buildings may contain asbestos. In many cases, it's more dangerous to remove the asbestos than it is to leave it intact. Breaking up asbestos may cause fibers to become airborne, where they can be inhaled. Consult experts trained to detect asbestos in your home. These experts may test the air in your home to determine whether the asbestos is a risk to your health. Don't attempt to remove asbestos from your home — hire a qualified expert. The Environmental Protection Agency offers advice on its website for dealing with asbestos in the home. (mayoclinic.org)

Symptoms And Causes Of Diabetes Insipidus

Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus
The main symptoms of diabetes insipidus are always feeling thirsty and frequent urination in large quantities. You will always be haunted by thirst despite drinking a lot of water.
The amount of urine expressed by people with diabetes insipidus each day is about 3-20 liters, ranging from cases of mild diabetes insipidus to the most severe cases. Urinary sufferers experienced this condition can be as much as 3-4 times per hour.
Symptoms that appear above can interfere with your daily activities as well as your sleep patterns. As a result will appear tired, irritable, and difficult to concentrate in performing daily activities.
Diabetes insipidus in children may be more difficult to recognize, let alone the child has not been able to communicate well. Symptoms in children suffering with diabetes insipidus are:
  • Bedwetting at bedtime.
  • Easily disturbed or angry.
  • Crying excessively.
  • High body temperature or hyperthermia.
  • Weight loss for no apparent reason.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Feeling tired and exhausted.
  • Slower growth.
Be sure to see a doctor immediately if you have two major symptoms of diabetes insipidus, always feel thirsty and frequent urination in large quantities.
Causes of Diabetes Insipidus
The hypothalamus, the tissue in the brain that controls mood and appetite, is the organ that produces antidiuretic hormones. This hormone will be stored in the pituitary gland until needed. The pituitary gland itself is under the brain, and is behind the bridge of the nose. This gland will release antidiuretic hormone when the body's water content decreases to stop the production of urine in the kidney.
Diabetes insipidus occurs when the antidiuretic hormone is impaired in regulating the body's water content. As a result, the body produces a lot of urine and dispose of water in very large quantities.
The following is a further explanation of both types of diabetes insipidus.
Cranial Diabetic Insipidus
This is a condition when the body does not produce enough antidiuretic hormones and results in the amount of water wasted in the urine. Below are some of the most common causes of this type of diabetes insipidus, namely:
  • About 16 percent of cases of cranial diabetes insipidus are caused by severe head injuries that damage the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
  • About 20 percent of cases of cranial diabetes insipidus are caused due to complications from brain surgery that damage the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
  • About 25 percent of cases of cranial diabetes insipidus are caused by brain tumors that damage the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
Here are some of the less common causes of diabetes insipidus.
  • Brain cancer.
  • Lack of oxygen in the brain for example due to stroke.
  • The occurrence of infections that damage the brain, such as encephalitis and meningitis.
  • Wolfarm syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that can cause loss of vision.
About 1 in 3 cases of cranial diabetes insipidus are not known.
Diabetes Insipidus Nefrogenik
This is the condition when the antidiuretic hormone is produced according to the level required by the body. But the kidney organ is not sensitive or does not respond to this hormone.
The antidiuretic hormone normally sends signals to the tissue of the nephron in the kidney. Nephrons are small structures that control how much water is absorbed by the body and how much water is released in the form of urine. For people suffering from diabetes insipidus nefrogenik, the process of sending this signal is disrupted. As a result, people who experience it will always feel thirsty because urine is wasted in large quantities. Diabetes insipidus nefrogenik itself is divided into two types:
  • Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or otherwise known as congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Congenital diabetic nephrogenic patients are born with this condition. There are two types of mutations or genetic changes that cause congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, namely AVPR2 and AQP2. AVPR2 genetic mutations can only be transmitted from mother to son. This type of mutation occurs in 9 of 10 patients. While genetic mutations of AQP2 occur in 1 in 10 cases of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and may affect both men and women.
  • Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. This type of diabetes insipidus is not born with this condition. The most common cause of acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is lithium side effects. Lithium itself is a drug used to treat bipolar disorder. If taken in the long run, the kidney organ cells can be damaged and then no longer able to respond to antidiuretic hormones. Nearly 50 percent of people will develop niprogenic diabetes insipidus if taking this drug in the long run. Be sure to perform kidney organ examinations once every three months as long as you consume lithium. 
Other causes of this condition other than lithium are:
  • Pielonephritis or kidney infection. Kidney organs are damaged by infection.
  • Urinary tract obstruction. The inhibition of one or both urinary tracts that connect the kidney to the bladder, such as kidney stones.
  • Hyperkalemia. Excess amount of calcium in the blood can damage the kidneys.
  • Hypokalemia. The amount of potassium in the blood is small, when all the cells in the body need potassium to function properly.

Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Insomnia

Diagnosis of Insomnia
In diagnosing insomnia, the doctor will usually first collect information from the patient about his medical history. The doctor will ask if the patient has a health problem (physical or psychological) or is taking certain medications that may make it difficult to sleep.
In addition, the doctor will also ask whether the patient has a habit of consuming caffeine or alcohol, in addition to asking about diet, exercise, and sleep routine.
If necessary, the doctor will perform further tests if insomnia is suspected to be caused by health problems, one of which is a blood test to check thyroid hormone levels.
To determine the severity of insomnia, patients can make a sleep diary for two weeks. Some of the information that should be included in the sleep diary usually includes the time it takes for the patient to sleep, about what time he or she starts sleeping, how many times he wakes up at night, and at what time the patient wakes up.
In addition to these, the patient may also include some information about whether the patient is feeling stressed or tired during the day, whether he or she takes a nap, and meals and sports.
Through all the information and data collected that doctors can provide advice on treatment and may also prescribe the appropriate medication in accordance with the conditions underlying the occurrence of insomnia.
Treatment of Insomnia
In treating insomnia, the first thing a doctor does is find out what the root cause is. If the insomnia is based on certain habits, then the doctor will advise the patient to change his habit. For example advise not to consume caffeinated beverages, smoking, and liquor before bed. In addition, doctors will suggest setting bedtime and waking up each day in a disciplined manner. Finally, patients will be advised not to take a nap.
If insomnia is caused by a health problem, then the doctor will first overcome the underlying condition and of course with the adjustment measures are adjusted so as not to cause side effects that can aggravate insomnia.
If the patient continues to experience insomnia despite improving lifestyle, the doctor will usually advise patients to follow specific cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Even if needed, doctors can prescribe sleeping pills.
Overcoming insomnia with cognitive behavioral therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy for treating insomnia or CBT-I is usually recommended for those who have experienced a sleep disorder that does not improve after a change in sleep routine. CBT-I is performed with a doctor's guidance with the aim of changing the thoughts and negative behaviors that cause insomnia, into positive thoughts and behaviors.
During CBT-I therapy, patients will be taught how to reduce stress or thoughts that can interfere with sleep, and are taught how to relieve tension with relaxation. If needed, the doctor will measure the patient's relaxation level with the help of a sensor device installed in the patient's body.
In CBT-I therapy, patients will also be taught how to set their minds to be able to associate the bedroom with sleep alone. In addition, patients will be guided in order to be able to set sleep and waking time consistently.
In addition to the above methods of treatment, there are other things that are included in CBT-I therapy, among them is paradoxical intention to help patients who have trouble starting sleep but have no problem in maintaining sleep. Sleep restriction therapy may also be recommended to improve sleep time gradually.
To know each progress that has been achieved by patients, usually the doctor will ask the patient to keep filling the sleep diary.
Overcome insomnia with sleeping pills
Sleep medicine is usually only used by doctors as a last resort, when insomnia is no longer able to be overcome with changes in lifestyle and cognitive therapy or when the severity of insomnia is high.
Sleeping pills are generally prescribed with the lowest possible dose and with the shortest possible length of time. So it means that the use of sleeping pills is only temporary. Doctors will usually be reluctant to prescribe sleeping pills in the long run because it still will not address the underlying causes of insomnia.
For insomnia that causes the sufferer to experience fatigue, severe stress, or sudden awakening at night, the doctor may prescribe zopiclone or zolpidem. Usually these two sleeping pills are given with the lowest possible doses within a maximum period of one month. Both zopiclone and zolpidem have side effects such as dry mouth, headache, nausea, or vomiting.
For insomnia sufferers have difficulty getting to sleep, doctors can prescribe zaleplon. Common side effects of using this drug are tingling, pain during menstruation in women, and short-term memory loss. Zaleplon is usually prescribed in a maximum half-month period with the lowest possible dose.
If insomniacs experience severe anxiety or stress, doctors may prescribe a class of sedatives such as benzodiazepines to make the patient relax and sleep well.
In addition to causing dependence, sleep disorder sleep can sometimes continue until the next day, especially in the elderly. Therefore for those of you who have a busy routine and like to bring your own vehicle, should ask your doctor for sleeping pills provided can be tailored to your condition.
Prevention of Insomnia
There are several preventive measures you can take to avoid getting insomnia, among them is to maintain the comfort of the bedroom and implement a healthy lifestyle.
Avoid consuming large portions of food, alcoholic beverages, and smoking before bedtime. Similar to caffeinated beverages, if you like to drink tea or coffee, stop consuming the drink at least a few hours before bedtime. Do things that can help cause drowsiness, such as bathing or drinking warm milk.
If you still are not sleepy, do not force yourself to sleep. You better get up and do other activities, like watching TV, chatting with family, or reading a book. After you get sleepy and feel tired, then go back to the room. Avoid lying in bed for a long time feeling anxious or watching the clock. If necessary, you can write the things that make you worry following the solution.
Keep your room clean so you can sleep comfortably and avoid the disease. If noise or light from outside the room disturbs your sleep, then wear earplugs or blinders as a solution.
Try to get up at the same time each day despite lack of sleep. If you are tired and sleepy during the day, do not sleep because it will only make you difficult to sleep back at night. Do exercise about thirty minutes per day on a regular basis, such as cycling or a leisurely stroll. In addition to keeping the body fit, exercise can also make you sleep soundly. However, it should be remembered that the exercise deadline is four hours before bedtime.
Apart from being a way to prevent insomnia, the steps above can you apply as a method of treating insomnia at home without having to go to the doctor. If insomnia still occurs after the tips are lived, then you should see a doctor.

Definition of Ectopic Pregnancy

Definition of Ectopic Pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancy is a condition when ovum conception takes place outside the womb (usually in one of the fallopian tubes).
Pregnancy begins with an egg cell that has been fertilized by a sperm cell. In the normal process, the fertilized egg will stay in the fallopian tube for about three days, before it is released into the uterus. Inside the womb, this egg will continue to grow until labor time arrives. However there is the possibility of a fertilized egg being attached to an organ other than the uterus and this is called an ectopic pregnancy.
The fallopian tube is the organ that is most often attached to the egg. While other organs that may be the site of the development of ectopic pregnancy include the abdominal cavity, ovary, and cervix or cervix.
Causes of Ectopic Pregnancy
One of the most common causes of ectopic pregnancy is failure of fallopian tubes, for example because of inflammatory or inflammatory processes. This damage will block the fertilized egg to enter the uterus so that it eventually sticks in the fallopian tube itself or other organs.
In addition, unbalanced hormone levels or abnormal development of a fertilized egg can sometimes act as a trigger.
Risk Factors Ectopic Pregnancy
There are a number of factors that can trigger an ectopic pregnancy. These risk factors include:
  • Choice of contraceptives. The use of contraceptive devices of the spiral or intrauterine device (IUD) aims to prevent pregnancy. However, if pregnancy persists, it is likely that this pregnancy is ectopic.
  • Have had an ectopic pregnancy before. Women who have experienced this condition have a higher risk to return to experience it.
  • Have an infection or inflammation. Women who have had inflammatory fallopian tubes or pelvic inflammatory disease from sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea or chlamydia (chlamydia), have a higher risk for ectopic pregnancy.
  • Fertility problems and treatment can sometimes trigger an ectopic pregnancy.
  • The process of sterilization and vice versa. Inadequate tubal binding or tubal binding procedures are also at risk of triggering an ectopic pregnancy.
Symptoms of Ectopic Pregnancy
Initially, ectopic pregnancy tended to be asymptomatic or had a sign similar to that of an ordinary pregnancy before finally another symptom indicated an ectopic pregnancy. Among others are:
  • Pain in the lower abdomen that usually occurs on 1 side.
  • Pain in the pelvis.
  • Mild vaginal bleeding.
  • Dizzy or limp.
  • Nausea and vomiting accompanied by pain.
  • Pain in the shoulder.
  • Pain or pressure on the rectum during bowel movements.
  • If the fallopian tube is torn, great bleeding may occur that may trigger a loss of consciousness.
Ectopic pregnancy includes medical conditions requiring emergency treatment. Therefore, you should immediately go to the hospital if you experience these symptoms.
Diagnosis of Ectopic Pregnancy
In addition to asking about general health conditions, the doctor will hold a physical examination of the pelvic cavity. But ectopic pregnancy can not be confirmed only by physical examination. Doctors also require ultrasound or blood tests.
The most accurate ultrasound method for detecting an ectopic pregnancy is a transvaginal ultrasound. This procedure will confirm the location of ectopic pregnancy as well as fetal heart rate.
In the early days of pregnancy, especially 5 to 6 weeks early after conception, pregnancy may not yet be detectable through ultrasound. In this condition the doctor may recommend a blood test to identify an ectopic pregnancy. This test is used to detect the presence of the hormone hCG (Human chorionic gonadotropin), this hormone produced the placenta during early pregnancy. In ectopic pregnancy, hCG hormone levels tend to be lower than normal pregnancies.
Steps to Treat Ectopic Pregnancy
The fertilized egg will not grow normally if it is not in the uterus. Therefore, ectopic tissue must be removed to avoid complications that can be fatal.
Women who are suspected of having an ectopic pregnancy should be immediately taken to the hospital for treatment as soon as possible. Pregnancy early detection without a normal developing fetus in the womb is generally treated with methotrexate injections. This drug will stop the growth as well as destroy the cells that have been formed.
The doctor will monitor the patient's hCG levels after receiving the injections. If the hCG levels in the patient's blood remain high, this usually indicates that the patient needs methotrexate injections again. Potential side effects of this medicine include nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain can also appear in 3 days or 1 week after.
Ectopic pregnancy can also be treated with surgery. This procedure is usually performed through a keyhole or laparoscopic operation. The umbilical fallopian tubes will be repaired if possible.
Complications and Prevention of Ectopic Pregnancy
Incorrect diagnosis and delayed treatment of late ectopic pregnancy can lead to severe bleeding and even death from tearing of the fallopian tubes or uterus. If experiencing these complications, the patient should undergo emergency surgery through open surgery. The fallopian tube may be repairable, but it should generally be removed.
Handling with surgery also has its own risks. Some complications that may occur include bleeding, infection, and damage to the organs around the operated part.
Ectopic pregnancy can not be prevented completely. In order to avoid this condition, you must avoid or reduce the risk factor. An example is by undergoing blood and ultrasound tests as early detection or monitoring the progress of pregnancy. Especially for women who have had ectopic pregnancy.

Understanding Dry Eyes

Understanding Dry Eyes
Dry eye disease is a condition of the eyes that lack fluid from tears that are volatile or tear production is too little.
Other names of dry eye diseases are keratoconjunctivitis sicca or dry eye syndrome. Someone who has this disease will get symptoms, such as:
  • Red eye
  • Eyes swollen
  • Eyes are hot
  • Eyes hurt
  • Eyes felt gritty and dry
  • Eyes itch
  • Vision becomes sensitive to sunlight
  • Temporary blurry vision improved when blinking
  • The presence of thin mucous membranes around the eyes
  • The upper and lower eyelids stick together when you wake up.
The severity of dry eye diseases varies, ranging from mild to severe levels with pain or even complications. In most cases, the symptoms are considered mild.
Cause of Dry Eyes
The decline or disruption of tear production, as well as the rapid evaporation of tears in cases of dry eye disease can be triggered by several factors, including:
  • Age (most cases of dry eye disease occur in the elderly).
  • Hormonal changes, such as when pregnant, when using contraceptive pills, and when approaching the menopause.
  • The activities and habits that cause the eye frequency to flicker are reduced such as reading, working in front of a computer, and writing.
  • Certain diseases, such as blepharitis, meibomian gland dysfunction, contact dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, allergic conjunctivitis, Sjogren's syndrome, HIV, scleroderma, bell's palsy, and lupus
  • Injury to the eye
  • Exposure to radiation
  • Side effects of contact lens wear
  • Side effects of laser surgery on the eyes (Lasik)
  • Side effects of medications (eg antidepressants, diuretics, beta-blockers, and antihistamines)
  • The environment (eg living in high areas, or dry climates, hot, and windy)
Diagnosis of Dry Eyes
Examination of dry eye disease can be done by an ophthalmologist by looking at the signs seen in the eyes, as well as symptoms that are felt by the patient. In addition to regular checks, sometimes doctors also require special examination techniques to strengthen the analysis.
One type of test to determine if a patient has dry eye disease or not is Schirmer's test. Through this test the doctor will measure the level of dryness in the eye by attaching a special piece of paper that can absorb fluid in the lower eyelid for 5 minutes. If in that time the wet area of ​​paper is less than 10 millimeters long, it means the patient has dry eye disease.
To find out how fast the tears dry up, the doctor can perform a test called Fluorescein dye test. The test in which is assisted by a special dye of yellow and orange color can also be used to detect any damage to the surface of the eye.
In addition to Fluorescein dye test, damage to the surface of the eye can also be detected by the Lissamine green test.
Dry Eye Treatment
Before going to the doctor, try to treat yourself first dry eyes if the symptoms are still relatively mild. Use free-selling eye drops in pharmacies that have the properties of moisturizing the eye or serve as a substitute for tears.
If your own treatment at home does not work, then see a doctor. By your doctor, you will usually be prescribed medications that can stimulate tear production or increase the amount of tears, as well as reduce the risk of damage to the cornea.
If medication is not able to cope with dry eye, then the doctor will offer you the procedure of blockage of a tear ducts or a punk plug. Through this procedure, the exhaust holes located in the corner of the eye will be blocked so that the eye does not dry quickly. Procedures of the punk stop are temporary and some are permanent. If required, a permanent blockage procedure will be performed by the physician and of course with the patient's consent.
Dry Eye Prevention
Dry eye disease can be prevented by:
  • Keeping eye clean and surrounding areas.
  • Protect your eyes from exposure to dust if living in dry and windy areas.
  • Using air-humidifying products that are sold freely in the market.
  • Avoid wearing eye make-ups such as eyeliner and mascara.
  • Eat foods rich in omega-3 and omega-7 substances.
  • Protecting your eyes from exposure to smoke when on the road.
  • Rest your eyes if it feels tired or tense after working all day in front of a computer screen.

This is the Dangers of Sinusitis When a Complication Occurs

This is the Dangers of Sinusitis When a Complication Occurs
At first glance, the symptoms of sinusitis are almost similar to the flu. However, if there are symptoms that are not common, be careful as a complication of the danger of sinusitis that immediately needs to be handled by a doctor.
Most of the sinusitis is caused by a virus that heals for about a week. When sinusitis symptoms continue 10 days or more be aware of bacterial infections that can cause complications.
Disturbance of Sinus Wall Causes
Sinusitis or sinus infection is an inflammation that occurs in the sinus wall cavity. The causes of inflammation vary, ranging from viruses, fungi, bacteria or allergies. Inflammation caused by sinusitis causes the cavity is not able to remove the fluid as it should, so that mucus is formed.
Symptoms that are often complained of include a clogged nose or pain in the face and headache.
Danger of sinusitis in case of complications is rare, but can be very dangerous and life-threatening. Men are more likely to have complications from sinusitis than women.
Some complications caused by the danger of sinusitis, among others:
1.Chronic sinusitis
Acute sinusitis may progress to chronic sinusitis over a longer period of time. Chronic sinusitis can last for more than 3 months.
2.Infection of eye sockets
This is a condition of infection of the back of the eye socket. This condition is the most frequent complication of sinusitis characterized by swelling of the eyelid, visual impairment, difficulty moving the eyeball, and other eye disorders based on the location of the infection. To overcome orbital cellulitis, antibiotic administration by infusion will be suggested. This condition can lead to visible power interference, and even permanent blindness.
3.Infection of blood vessels around the sinuses
This condition is also called cavernous sinus thrombosis. Symptoms include decreased eyelids, pain around the eyes, headache, and fever.
Is an infection of the front bone of the head that causes swelling of the eyelids, high fever, severe headache, nausea and vomiting and pain when seeing the light. This condition needs to be confirmed with a CT scan. In addition to using antibiotics, treatment requires surgery and fluid drainage on the sinuses.
Infection that occurs when inflammation of the protective membrane of the brain, the fluid that fills around the brain, and the central nervous system. Symptoms include high fever, severe headache, stiff neck, difficulty walking, confusion, nausea and vomiting.
6.The disappearance of part or all of olfactory power
Inflammation of the nose and the swelling of the nerves used as the sense of smell. This loss of ability can be temporary, or even permanent.
Symptoms to Look Out for
Nearly most sinus infections rarely cause complications, but when it comes the dangers of complicated sinusitis, these conditions can be life-threatening. Make sure you know the signs of complications so you can get treatment as soon as possible.
One of the most common symptoms of sinusitis complications is the eyes and the area around the eyes can not function normally. One or both eyes appear red or swollen. Often accompanied by severe headaches, high fever, and drowsiness. In addition, other symptoms are classified as dangerous such as nausea and vomiting, difficulty walking, even to decreased consciousness.
If any of these symptoms occur, consult your doctor for treatment and prevention of dangerous complications from sinusitis.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a term used for a number of diseases that attack the lungs for the long term. This disease prevents airflow from the lungs so that people will have difficulty in breathing.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is generally a combination of two respiratory diseases, namely chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Bronchitis is an infection of the air passages leading to the lungs causing swelling of the bronchial walls and the production of fluid in the airways excessively. While emphysema is a condition of damage to the bags of air in the lungs that occur gradually. The airbag will bubble and deflate as we draw and exhale. Flexibility of the air sac will decrease if a person has emphysema, consequently the amount of air coming in will decrease.
Symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
In the early stages, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) rarely show symptoms or special signs. The symptoms of this disease will appear when there is significant damage to the lungs, generally years after exposure. Therefore, pengidapnya often not aware of this disease.
There are a number of symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) that can occur and should be wary of:
  • Cough with phlegm that does not heal.
  • The more frequent wheezing, even when performing light physical activities such as cooking or wearing clothes.
  • Wheezing or breathing congestion and rang.
  • Limp.
  • Frequent lung infections.
  • Weight loss.
Recurrent attacks Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) can sometimes occur suddenly with more severe symptoms for several days and may even be harmful. This condition then subsides and can happen again. The longer a person develops Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), the symptoms that occur during a re-attack will also get worse.
If you suspect that you have symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), consult your doctor immediately. Do not delay it.
Risk Factors Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) can be caused by various things. A number of risk factors that may increase a person's risk for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) include:
  • Cigarettes. Cigarette smoke exposure in both active and passive smokers is a major factor in COPD causes and a number of other respiratory diseases. It is estimated that about one in four smokers are active in COPD.
  • Exposure to air pollution, such as motor vehicle fumes, dust, or chemicals.
  • Age. COPD will develop slowly over the years. Disease symptoms generally occur in people aged 35 to 40 years.
  • Hereditary factors. If you have a family member with COPD, you also have a higher risk of getting the same disease.
Diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Doctors commonly diagnose COPD by asking for symptoms, checking the patient's physical condition, and breathing tests. Physical examination includes examination of breath sounds through stethoscope and body mass index. Smoking history will also be asked.
Respiratory tests will be performed with a spirometer (spirometry check), a tool for measuring lung function through breathing on the machine. Two types of breaths to be measured, namely rapid breathing in one second and the total number of breaths out of the lungs.
If needed, your doctor will recommend some more detailed checks such as:
  • Blood tests to remove the possibility of other diseases, such as anemia that sometimes also causes shortness of breath.
  • X-ray of lung. The severity of the efisema as well as other lung disorders can be examined through this procedure.
  • CT scan for the physical condition of the lungs can be examined.
  • Electrocardiogram and echocardiogram to check the condition of the heart.
  • Sputum sampling.
Early diagnosis will allow you to undergo treatment as soon as possible so that the development of COPD can be inhibited.
Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
Until now, COPD includes diseases that can not be cured. Treatment aims to relieve symptoms and inhibit the progression of the disease.
However, you do not need to worry, because the right combination of treatments will allow you to live a better life. Some treatment steps that can be done include:
  • Stop smoking or avoid exposure to secondhand smoke. This is a key step to ensure that COPD does not get worse.
  • Using drugs. For example, inhalers of respiratory or respiratory tract inflammation, theophylline tablets that will dilate the respiratory tract, mucolytic tablets (sputum and nasal diluents), antibiotic tablets, and steroid tablets.
  • Therapy for the lungs, eg nebulization (machines that spray sterile liquid vapors that have been mixed with breathing drugs) and oxygen therapy.
  • Lung rehabilitation program is a physical exercise that will usually be lived for approximately 1.5 months. In this program, people will be taught how to control symptoms as well as various knowledge about COPD.
In addition to medical treatment, there are simple steps that we can do to inhibit the increasing damage to the lungs. Some of them are:
  • Use medicine as recommended by physician. Do not stop without discussing with your doctor even if your condition feels better.
  • Periodically check with your doctor so that your health condition can be monitored.
  • Applying a healthy lifestyle, such as maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine.
  • Avoid air pollution, such as cigarette smoke and motor vehicle fumes.
  • Undergo regular vaccinations, for example flu vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine.

Understanding Children Who Have Obesity and Risk

Understanding Children Who Have Obesity and Risk
Funny! Yes, that's the first word in your head when you see the kids are plump and have chubby cheeks. However, be careful. Body that is bland and fertile, could be an indication of childhood obesity.
Seeing the adorable, stocky kids make adults feel like kissing and pinching them, right? Usually, parents often assume that a fertile child is a healthy child, because they like to eat. However, you should not be happy. Children with overweight bodies may be obese, and some dangerous diseases such as high cholesterol, diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease are ready to lurk your child anytime.
Excess Fat Can Cause Obesity In Children
Body fat has an important role, such as to store energy, regulate body temperature, withstand shocks, and various other functions. However, the excess amount of fat in your child's body can lead to obesity.
Many people think that obesity with overweight has the same meaning. In fact, both have different meanings. Obesity is a chronic condition associated with an excess amount of fat in the body. While overweight has a meaning that is the condition where a person's body weight exceeds the limit of normal weight. The weight can come from muscle, bone, fat, and water in a person's body.
Childhood obesity is caused by various reasons, such as due to an energy imbalance between the calories that come with the issued. It starts from eating unhealthy foods, and lack of physical activity in children. In addition, genetic factors, hormones, stress, the presence of problems in the family, as well as boredom that hit, can make children tend to overeat.
Obesity In Children Can Endanger Their Health
Obesity that occurs in children is obviously very dangerous. Because the excess fat that is on the child's body can invite various diseases that interfere with his health.
Excess amount of fat is not only an impact on the physical health of your baby alone, but also psychic. This situation can make it less confident because it has a different body size, tend to experience depression, have anxiety levels higher than other children, and make it as a victim of bullying or mockery material by his friends, even depression can occur. And usually, obese children will still experience it as adults, especially if one of their parents is also obese.
However, not all children who look fat and big body must be obese. Because the stage of development of each child is different, and you can not expect your child to be obese just from looking at her body. To find out if your child is obese or not, consult a doctor immediately. Your doctor will calculate the body mass index (BMI) of your baby, which is the calculation of height and weight of the child.
If a child's BMI is between 85 and 94 percent, then the child is overweight or overweight. Whereas if the IMT 95 percent or more, then the child is obese. However, your doctor is not only fixated on the number of IMT alone, the doctor will pay attention to how the child's eating habits, health, activities, and family health history, especially obesity history.
To keep the child protected from obesity, apply some of these ways. Among other things by choosing vegetables and fruits when shopping for food, limit fast food and sweet drinks, and serve foods according to the right portion (so your baby is not excessive when eating). In addition, you can invite your baby to do physical activities together with you.
If you have a fat child, it would not hurt to check with your doctor. Consult immediately to doctors and obese children can get the right handling and lifestyle changes.